Once iodine was dropped onto the circle labeled “ Saliva”, it transformed into a white/ yellow Colour, due to it granting the starch to break down properly, it transformed white as a result of there being no starch, hence it executed its main action. Once iodine was dropped onto the circle, which was labeled “HCL+ saliva”, was divided into two colours, white and navy blue, this arose because the starch did not get broken down. The enzyme got denatured with the extension of hydrochloric acid of hydrochloric acid. The acid found in hydrochloric acid obtains a low level oh pH (2), causing it not to be broken down, rather to be denatured, confirms amylase can’t continue it’s activity without a particular high amount of acid, (that is found in stomach acid). My hypothesis is incorrect due to the fact that my prediction is
Biuret test is a test which is utilized to indicate unhydrolyzed proteins. When there are peptides in a solution, a copper (II) ion forms violet-coloured coordination complexes in an alkaline solution. The biuret test can be utilised to analyse the concentration of proteins due to peptide bonds that occur with the same frequency per amino acid inside the peptide. In this experiment, the colour changed to purple to indicate the presence of protein. The pH was found to be 7, which is in the range of a healthy person’s pH (which is 7.4).Benedict`s solution is made up of alkaline copper sulphate and sodium citrate (blue in colour) (Danson and et al, 1996).
This helps to indicate whether or not the reaction follows Markovnikov’s Rule, which states that the electrophile (E+) will add to the carbon involved in a double bond that produces the most stable carbocation. If the rule is followed, the reaction will proceed according to the mechanism in Figure 1. In the silver nitrate test, the alkyl bromide is added to AgNO3. The rate of precipitation with 2° should be faster than the solution with the 1° alkyl halide. In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone.
In the first step, the leaving group departs, forming a carbocation C+. In the second step, the nucleophilic reagent (Nuc :) attaches to the carbocation and forms a covalent sigma bond. If the substrate has a chiral carbon, this mechanism can result in either inversion of the stereochemistry or retention of configuration. Usually both occur without preference. The result is racemization.
Exercise 1 1. Suppose a household product label says it contains sodium hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate). Using your results from Data Table 1 as a guide, how would you test this material for the presence of sodium bicarbonate? B BoldI ItalicsU Underline Bulleted list Numbered list Superscript Subscript33 Words If I had a household product labeled sodium bicarbonate, I would add an acidic substance and expect bubble to be created. As we know acid reacts with bubbles when combined with sodium bicarbonate.
On the other hand chlorine when reacts with any substance it adds chlorine molecule or substitutes chlorine atom from substance. Chlorine dioxide responds specifically with amino acids and the RNA in the cell. It is not clear whether chlorine dioxide attacks the cell structure or the acids inside the cell. The generation of proteins is avoided. Chlorine dioxide influences the cell layer by changing film proteins and fats and by anticipation of
Enzymes are homogeneous biological catalyst that work by lowering the activation of a reaction pathway or providing a new pathway with a low activation energy. Enzymes are special biological polymers that contain an active site, which is responsible for binding the substrates, the reactants, and processing them into products. As is true of any catalyst, the active site returns to its original state after the products are released. Many enzymes consist primarily of proteins, some featuring organic or inorganic cofactors in their active sites. However, certain ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules can also be biological catalysts, forming ribozymes.
It was able to support itself as a thin sheet, but easily fragmented when a small force was applied. 3mL of 2M Sodium Hydroxide and 1mL of water, effectively 4mL of 1.5M Sodium Hydroxide, was added to a small amount of Indigo, forming a paste. Sodium Hydrosulphite the acted as a reducing agent, converting Indigo into Leucoindigo, an acidic phenolic compound that reacts with hydroxide ions provided by Sodium Hydroxide to form a water-soluble salt. The solution turns colourless, and the dying process can begin. A 60°C water bath was chosen as Sodium Hydrosulphite will decompose into Sodium Sulfate and Sulfur Dioxide in presence of air at 90°C.
DNA is a negatively charged macro molecule. Protein interact with the DNA with its positively charged residues. Protein molecule interact with DNA by means of hydrogen bonding mainly. The hydrogen bonding play an essential role for many bio-molecular interaction. We can found this kind of interaction during protein-protein interaction, DNA protein interaction,
Heme Alkylation: Drugs containing terminal double-bond (olefins) or triple-bond (acetylenes) can oxidized by CYPs to potent radical intermediates, which alkylate the prosthetic heme group and inactivate the enzyme. For example, allyl-isopropylacetamide (AIA) and ethinylestradiol. 2. Covalent Binding to Apoprotein: Covalent bonding of few drugs to apoprotein causes covalent modification of protein which results in loss of catalytic activity, only if essential amino acids are modified (Kamel et. al., 2013).
The solubility rules pertaining to the substances used during this lab are as follows: All nitrates, sulfates (except those containing Ba, Ca, Sr, Pb, and Hg₂), compounds containing alkali metals (Na), and chlorides (except those containing Ag, Pb, and Hg₂) are soluble. All compounds containing CO₃, the compound AgCl and some sulfates such as Ag₂SO₄ are insoluble. Given this, the reaction between Silver Nitrate and Hydrochloric produced aqueous nitric acid and a solid precipitate of Silver Chloride because of AgCl insolubility and all nitrates solubility. Silver Nitrate and Copper Sulfate produced aqueous Copper (II) Nitrate and a solid precipitate of Silver Sulfate because of all nitrates solubility and the exception that Ag₂SO₄ is insoluble. Silver Nitrate and Sodium Carbonate reaction resulted in the formation of a solid Silver Carbonate precipitate and aqueous Sodium Nitrate because of all nitrates solubility and carbonates insolubility.
Narrowing down the unknown microorganism to gram negative, this approach was helpful to take the next step, in some bacteria the cell wall is surrounded by cell enveloped called capsule, also some bacteria make capsule when faced in a harsh environment to protect them. A capsule stain was preform, the results were analyzed and observed. An additional procedure that was done, was the Fast Actin staining which helps to see if the bacteria contains Mycolic acid in their cell walls, which determines the structure and function of the cytoskeleton in living and fixed cells (Shah). As expected for both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the fast acting results were negative. For both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the Oxidase test was positive a reaction was obtained.
It is necessary to understand what each test reveals about the unknown. Citrate tests are performed in order to distinguish between different enteric bacteria by seeing which can use citrate as the sole carbon source. MR/VP are tests that are used to distinguish between different types of fermentation either mixed acid or butanediol and test for the production of acetoin. H2S production is used to determine whether or not the bacteria can produce hydrogen sulfide. Mannitol high salt testing is done in order to determine if the bacteria is salt tolerant and can ferment mannitol.
The repressor is a regulatory protein that binds to the operator and blocks transcription of the genes of an operon. Inducers bind to the repressors and they also regulate gene expression. In the process of identifying the three strains of E.coli, ONPG (ortho-nitrophenyl b-D galactoside) was used as an indicator. ONPG is a substrate that can detect B-galactosidase, and when it does, it turns yellow. Sarkosyl was also a detergent used in the lab to lyse open cells.