For example, he jeered at white Americans who tanned and curled their hair as if they were trying to be black. Furthermore, Malcolm X did not believe integration was possible, and, in fact, he advocated for maintaining black culture separate. After the murder of Malcolm X in 1965, the Black Panther Party was formed in Oakland, California by Huey B. Newton and Bobby Seal in 1966. Bobby Seale stated, "No more pigs in our community, off the pig, it 's time to pick up a gun." This became the inspiration for their techniques to deal with police brutality.
As it was not made official at the time, the Southern states were not at wrong for seceding from the union. Under the constitution, states had the right to use any power not directly delegated to the government. The act of secession was lawful under Amendment 10. Southern states had no say in a government which they believed was not fit to serve them. They had every right to leave the union and make their own government according to the Declaration of Independence, and if they had no say in government, they had no rights in that country.
The tactic of filling jails with protesters and activists used in the Montgomery Bus Boycott proved successful then, but was undermined by Albany police chief Pritchett. Pritchett studied the movement’s tactics and fought against them by putting arrested protesters in jails far away from Albany and in large institutions, so city jails would remain open. Because of the chief’s countermove, black people were arrested in droves without any resulting victory after the Albany movement was abandoned. In Clayborne Carson’s book In Struggle (1996) SNCC members realized that “patient suffering by nonviolent protesters was insufficient to bring about federal intervention.” The realization that black people’s suffering would do no good to create change reinforced many SNCC members’ belief that nonviolence was not enough. Instead, self-defense for the sake of protecting black lives was
These laws were passed by southern states in 1865 and 1866 to restrict African American’s freedom and forced them to work low income jobs. In 1866, the Supreme Court was able to overrule the Black Codes, giving the black American citizens full citizenship and freedom. This angered the southerners, who had fought to keep slavery, making
Segregation had been very common in the South, in the 1960’s. Nobody was treated equally, segregation was everywhere and on behalf of Jim Crow laws, inhumane ideas accumulated. African Americans were treated as if they were animals, which is morally wrong. Both the letter and the speech give examples of emotional and logical reasoning to make the reader think and actually feel how the African Americans felt in the rough world during segregation. The letter and speech that are used to compare and also to contrast in rhetorical devices are “I Have A Dream” and “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” Both are written and/or spoken by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Segregation and diversity in the letter and speech are described in logos and pathos to make
Although they both express the failure, each person acts as a representative of the two competing sides concerning whether or not to allow former slaves and other African Americans to live under full civil rights as whites. Smalls demonstrated how continued massacres, assaults, and whippings of blacks clearly proved that the signs of ending slavery by allowing them in state legislation and voting was a simple cover-up because they were never given the opportunity to enjoy their rights as whites. On the contrary, Hampton worked hard to prove that blacks were never qualified for the same rights as those of native white Americans. Hampton’s political-instigated support of malign activities of extremists such as Red Shirts and the Ku Klux Klan against blacks indicated made clear indication that Reconstruction could never have worked for people who just came to America as
The ‘separate but equal’ doctrine adopted in Plessy v. Ferguson has no place in the field of public education.” The court decision was a pivotal decision in the field of civil rights. It created a monumental change in the American nation. Furthermore, it broke all the traditional views about segregation by supporting equality among Americans. The bottom line, this landmark case made the previous doctrine ‘separate but equal’ unconstitutional. Additionally, the decision was a great chance for American society to come to terms with its dark past in the field of segregation and slavery.
Exacerbating the situation, a notoriously racist President, Andrew Johnson had been actively avoiding the Reconstruction issue of black rights, believing that African Americans had no roles to play in the era (Foner, 2008). Arousing the strongest opposition in Johnson’s reign were the Black Codes, a series of laws designed to control black life. And although former slaves were granted some rights - legal marriage, some access to the courts and property ownership (to an extent), but they imposed restrictions too,
It forced those in the south to look at their treatment of African Americans in the light of their advertising of democracy to the outside world while they were killing off those who lived inside their own borders. Hobbs uses the quote of a famous scholar throughout the era to further push this point home with the quote stating “ To become the world's reformer, the United States must first democratize its domestic social and political institutions - to harmonize them with its self proclaimed global aspirations - for it is not possible to use the famous phrase, ‘to make the world safe for democracy’ as long as America itself was not genuinely
The following year Johnson enacted the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which allowed federal employees to register voters, prohibited any change in voting stations unless permitted, and eliminated voting barriers like taxes and tests. Voting centers were no longer allowed to inhibit black voters by making up their own rules, otherwise they would be investigated. Allowing African Americans to do their civic duty and be heard in the federal government was exactly what many civil rights movements were fighting for. The government would hear more than just the white man’s voice with this new law, they would also hear the voice of many oppressed peoples. The inability to vote was exactly what led to the creation of the United States, and allowing another population to vote is undoubtedly a turning point in the country’s history.
The segregation of the northern and southern states subdued the United States from growing in to the nation we see today. African Americans of the south were subject to the brutal white supremacy that was accepted by the white citizens, so change was a futile notion. Many regions in the Deep South were not fixed on allowing African Americans equal rights in any way possible. These states expressed their beliefs through the enactment of Jim Crow Laws throughout the region. Unlike its counterparts of the Antebellum South, Pensacola, Florida became desegregated in a way unlike many of those states in the 20th century.
The continuance of these problems had a disastrous effect on African Americans and their families. The Black Panthers Party eventually began to stand up for themselves and fight back. They strongly believed in self-defense. The party organized rallies around the police brutality against African Americans and made speeches about every social and political issue affecting black Americans on a national level. During the Jim Crow Era, whites and the police would brutalize those blacks that were attending the rallies.