With the rise of white supremacist groups and the KKK (Ku Klux Klan) the persecution of black Americans increased as their freedom was seen as a threat to white Americans. When ex-slaves would try to flee plantations and set up their own farms, they would be lynched or murdered. In 1867, a former slave owner in Tennessee said that they continued to whip, maim and kill black Americans as if slavery still existed. The amendments and acts did not make the perception of black Americans change, by law they were regarded as equal individuals who deserved equal treatment everywhere, but in society they were still regarded as inferior and animalistic, and laws and legislation in southern states were set up to continue that ideology. The ‘Plessy vs. Ferguson’ Supreme Court case approved the ‘separate but equal’ legal segregation.
Many people remain unfamiliar with the biological and cultural ties that exist between African Americans and Native Americans. European colonial expansion and racial constructs led to slavery, expulsion, and wars that brought three different races to collide and compete for the same limited space. With European colonial expansion, free and enslaved Africans ran away to Native American lands for refuge. These encounters led to an increased population of mixed-race people attempting to redefine a new identity for the Americas. Africans, Indians, and some Europeans would form alliances that for decades contributed to fighting colonial domination.
After the American Civil War (1865), the Cherokee nation concluded a new treaty with the US, granting freedom and Cherokee citizenship to Negro slaves living among the tribe. The ancestors of Cora Peoples was a part of this group. Cora Mae (1902). Though the harsh treatment of enslaved Africans largely paled in comparison to that of white slaveholders, Blacks still were treated as an underclass among Native Americans. The tribes even established slave codes that protected owner's’ property rights and restricted the rights of Blacks.
The primary sources in the Primary Source Readings (PSR) tell us about the many backstories of the Atlantic Slave Trade not explicitly shown in most historical textbooks. Many slave owners, merchants, and lawmakers used religions, laws, and publications to prevent slave rebellions both on plantations and aboard ships. After the Bacon’s Rebellion, the fear of another unpleasant uprising led plantation owners and merchants seeking for a lower risk alternatives, such as adopting the chattel slavery system. In order to prevent any future slave rebellion uprising, they conspired to create a system of suppression towards the people of colors using the Atlantic slave trade. Most importantly, they also controlled the social conducts of Africans by
During these times of insurrection, white vigilance through terror, torture, and killings increased including bribing African Americans and Indians to do the corrupt work for them. The threat of African Americans aligning with Indians complicated matters for the whites. African Americans among the Indians would achieve freedom easier and would in turn help Indians fortify their defenses against whites who sought a policy of removing Indians west of the Mississippi River. The reluctance of many African Americans to leave Florida or separate from the Seminoles was intensified by their importance as food suppliers to the Indians, and they also had a special attachment to the land they cleared, tilled, and planted crops in Florida for decades that more rights and privileges under Spanish and British rule gave them. Consequently Seminole Indian unwillingness to return to Creek authority control in Oklahoma, from whom they had continuously separated for many decades, were important considerations to resist removal for both African Americans and Seminoles.
The areas of Africa where they had been sold into slavery were experiencing intense civil wars, and a number of ex-soldiers found themselves enslaved after surrendering to their enemies. South Carolinians thought it was possible that the slaves' African origins had contributed to the rebellion. Part of the 1740 Negro Act, passed in response to the rebellion, was a prohibition on importing slaves directly from Africa. South Carolina also wanted to slow the rate of importation down; African-Americans outnumbered whites in South Carolina, and South Carolinians lived in fear of
Americans were rather hostile towards Native Americans, partially because of a predisposition of them being savages, but also because they had a tremendous amount of difficulty sharing the land. In 1819 when the US purchased florida, they drove out a tribe who had been living there to escape american authorities and placed them in a reservation in central florida. When Native americans attempted to use US law to fight back (1828 supreme court case, Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia) and won, the president at the time disregarded the ruling and placed the Cherokee in Oklahoma. The last blow came from the 1830 - Indian Removal Act which allowed the president to negotiate with the remaining native americans to move them to the west of the mississippi.
In the late 1830’s, where the United States was growing rapidly, whites faced an obstacle while trying to settle in the South. This area of land was home of the Cherokee and other Indian tribes. The Cherokee Indians signed treaties hoping that white settlers would not come for their land. Prompted by the state of Georgia along with the president, Andrew Jackson, whom did not like Indians, expelled the Cherokee Indians from their homeland. Cherokee’s pleas to Georgia and the Supreme Court did little to stop their removal.
Abolitionist had varied perspectives on emancipation and what was considered the right solution to the “peculiar institution”. Different groups like the American Anti-Slavery Society and the American Colonization Society were both fighting to abolish slavery; however, they acted in contradicting ways. One group wanted to include and invite free slaves into American society and the other wanted to free and send slaves back to Africa. The diverse opinions made it difficult for progress to occur. In fact, the one and only thing most people could agree on was the notion that slavery was immoral and inhumane.
From 1816 to the end of slavery, how was slavery resisted? Why was it resisted in the way that you describe? African Americans enslaved in the United States tried to resist slavery in a number of different passive and violent ways. Slaves would try running away as one form of resistance, although they would not travel a relatively long distance, they would run away with the mindset of not permanently escaping from slavery, but instead to temporarily suspend their labor in attempt to bring negotiation and economic bargaining between slave and master. In these times, slave revolts were more likely to happen when the number of slaves was greater than that of the whites.