As Brent Staples explains in his essay “Black Men and Public Space,” black people deal with many problems, from discrimination, and he explains these points in an orderly manner and each very thoroughly. Over the existence of the United States, blacks have had to face oppression due to the prejudices views held against this. America views every black person as the same and judges them based on the actions of others. It is for this reason that all blacks are judged based on the book of a cover without being able to show the world who they really are. As Norman Podhoretz stated in his Essay “My Negro Problem - and Ours,” “growing up in terror of black males; they were tougher than we were, more ruthless...”
He was reported to have said in one of his speeches, “The only way we gonna stop them white men from whuppin' us is to take over. What we gonna start sayin' now is Black Power!” Stokely Carmichael believed that the Black Power movement, was not only to stand for racial integration but strived to challenge the racism of America. They aimed to address lack of representation for black interests in society by promoting black political and cultural institutions, “rather than seeking equality and acceptance within a mainly white America”, and achieve self-sufficiency. Supporters of the black power movement were united in their aim to achieve racial equality, however, they was division within the movement, mainly into 2 groups- pluralists and nationalists. The pluralists hoped for an integrated society wherein all races could live in harmony, whereas the nationalists felt that whites and blacks could not co-exist without the whites oppressing the blacks.
This letter is a prime example of King’s expertise in constructing persuasive rhetoric that appealed to the masses at large. Because of his skill in creating such pieces of writing, as well as his influential role within the Civil Rights Movement, and the reminder that Letter from Birmingham Jail provides of these trying times, his letter should continue to be included within A World of Ideas. Persuasion within writing is an important tool to be utilized in order to garner support for one’s position. During the 1960s, equality between different races was a very controversial issue which required a certain finesse when being discussed. Martin Luther King demonstrated precisely this sort of finesse when writing about the racial injustices faced by black Americans, as well as when refuting the criticisms he faced from white clergymen.
1. What does the social construction of race and ethnicity mean? The social construction of race and ethnicity deals with the need to have a hierarchy based on skin color, phenotype, and the poking and prodding of humans to scientifically justify their claims that White is the superior race. Though the basis of the conversation of race and ethnicity as a social construct is based on biases, prejudice, and misconceptions about minorities, it was believed in society for many decades because of the rhetoric that was pushed into institutions that helped to further oppress people of color. Many opinions about the racial hierarchy that was prominent in society were based on colonization, slavery, and in more recent times, scientific racism.
White benefit is not such a weird thought to us. These are only a portion of the points of the diverse articles we picked on racism. White racism has really started to be a more basic thing on the planet. Most colored individuals would consider us the commanding race; yet, when whites are asked, they ponder this. Since colored individuals conceive that whites are bigot, it appears that they are being supremacist towards whites.
Mandelberg identifies the “norm of racial equality” distinguished by the Civil Rights Movement and following legislation, as an “informal standard of social behavior” in American society (17). Mandelberg outlines the way in which racial equality gained prominence through legislation and court rulings, and became a societal code—which, if broken, was deemed wildly inappropriate. However, Mandelberg traces this transition back to post-Emancipation the racial norms that caused a divide in the party system. Republicans and Democrats vied for support from white voters(.) Republicans adopted a stance on white majority that attracted many racist White Southerners, while Democrats’ only way to win the vote against this majority was to appeal to a bi-racial coalition of White and Black voters (Weaver yr.).
Explaining Ethnorace Thesis: With existing schematization presenting a range of issues in society, Alcoff’s theory of ethnorace provides effective ways to resolve the issues present within it. Fanon and Young on Schematization: Fanon and Young’s texts provide excellent accounts that allow schematization to be understood from different perspectives. In The Lived Experience of the Black, Fanon recounts and compares his experience around other “black” people (like himself), and around “white” people. These experiences, according to Fanon, brought about the experience of skin color. In his interaction with other black people, Fanon simply felt as one in the space and therefore, “belonging.” He states that "as long as the Black is with his own,
His motives are influenced by his thoughts, which result from the social pressure he experiences as an African American. The chain reaction resulting from the American culture of the 1930s is what Wright is trying to exploit. Wright uses Bigger’s story to represent the product of this cultural hardship. Insight on Bigger’s thoughts and actions allow us to see how these social prejudices influence the life of African Americans. Wright’s main goal was to emphasize on the psychological effect racism had on African Americans.
The men’s reaction towards Ralph Ellison’s slip of the tongue by saying “social equality” for “social responsibility underlines clearly the point he was conveying. Their reaction towards the point, threatened the white’s supremacy according to them. They disregarded the speech of the black American since they had their opinion that the speech exhibited an individual’s interest. Normally the humiliation constituted of superiority of the white at the expense of the black American. The humiliation of Ralph Ellison transformed his dream in view of the fact that the scholarship he was awarded is a way of actually keep him to the interests of the white.
Therefore Black Power is a reaction to the failure of white power. It is a symbolism of a mind and action shift from a devotion of a non-violent direct action to a violent necessary action for change. Even though Martin Luther King didn’t deny the existence of the violent progressive strategy he didn’t believe in it. He was different from all the other black power theoreticians in that he preached a black-white alliance towards change (non-separatism). Carmichael as the leader of SNCC abandoned the nonviolent strategy and went for separatism, non-integration and creating economic opportunities for black Americans through Black Nationalism and the militant action.