The PMSM motor operates at higher power factor than induction motor. These advantages makes permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) more suitable in various applications such as electric road vehicles, people movers,air conditioners, industrial drives, pumps, blowers, mills and so on, because of the high efficiency and the reduced size. A typical conventional motor consists of a stator with a fixed electromagnet and a rotor
3.5 displays the detailed cross section of stepper motor and further details about the motor can be seen in APPENDIX G. Fig.3.5. Cross section of stepper motor  “A stepper motor is a synchronous brushless electrical motor which converts digital pulses into a mechanical output.”  In stepper motor each rotation is divided into a fixed number of steps. Each step receives a separate pulse at a time and takes one step at a time. And hence each pulse results in the rotation of the motor at a precise angle. Like DC motor it does not require any feedback mechanism for its control.
A dc servo motor which is usually a dc motor of low power rating is used as an actuator to drive a load. A dc servo motor has a high ratio of starting torque to inertia and hence they make a faster dynamic response. The speed torque characteristic of this motor is flat over a broad range, as the armature reaction is negligible.
The reason the resistor is able to keep the current constant is because at the adjustment terminal of the LM317 is connected in parallel with the resistor . This means that the voltage present in the adjustment terminal of the LM317 (1.25V) will be the voltage present across the resistor. The voltage inside the LM317 is able to maintain a nominal voltage of 1.25V, which is considered as the reference voltage . 18.104.22.168 Discrete vs Integrated Laser driver circuits The discrete automatic power control Laser driver circuit is used to supply voltage from 6 to 12 V . A universal operational amplifier is used in this circuit called the OPAMP LM358, with a Zener diode and a transistor.
Introduction The 3-phase induction motor is the motor used most frequently for industrial drives because of its excellent reliability, its simple and thus low-cost construction and its low maintenance costs. The 3-phase induction motor is an (AC Electric motor) by which the stator is connected to 3-phase balanced supply creates magnetic field that rotates in the same time with AC oscillation. Then the synchronous rotor produces magnetic field at the same speed of stator field then an induction motor’s rotor moves at lower speed. This produce opposing electric current by closing the circuit or making it short circuit, so the electric current produces torque. So by this it is known that the induction motor can be built without electrical connection to the rotor.
In addition, epoxy glue is used to fix the magnets to the rotor surface in the inset and projecting surface-mounted machines. This implies that the mechanical strength of the surface mounted machines is only as good as that of the epoxy glue, assuming no retaining sleeve is used; hence, buried PM machines are more robust and tend to be used for high-speed
Machines having more than three phases exhibit the same properties, but those with one or two phases do not. This was one of the clinching arguments that led to the universal adoption of three phases for electrical power systems, more than a century ago. However, increasing numbers of induction motors are not connected directly to three-phase supplies. Instead, they derive their excitation from a power electronic converter, the input stage of which is connected to a three-phase supply. The output stage of the converter and the stator winding of the motor must have the same number of phases but provided this simple requirement is met, any number of phases may be used.
This construction reduces the power loss that is normally caused due to the internal resistance of the cells. A number of advantages are offered by bipolar lead acid batteries as an energy storage device that it makes this technology suitable for use in battery electric / hybrid vehicles. Some of them are: • In a bipolar construction, much less material weight is needed for electronic conduction of the current in the grid and in the cell connections in comparison to conventional lead acid batteries. • A well established supply chain and manufacturing methodologies for lead acid batteries make it all the more reliable and provide an attractive cost
The rotor, instead of being spun around its central axis is rather pulled along the stator by a moving magnetic field. Similarly, the linear induction motor of the EMALS  consists of two 100m parallel stators with a rotor built from permanent magnets moving between the stators. The stators are built from sections and only the section next to the rotor is energized at a given moment, reducing power consumption. Furthermore, Hall Effect sensors provide real-time feedback of the rotor velocity and thus the velocity profile during launch can be closely matched to that required of the launching
1.6.5 MATRIX CONVERTER(Fig. 1.6.5) A matrix converter is a direct power-conversion topology that can convert energy from an AC source to an AC load without the need for bulky and limited-lifetime energy storage elements in the dc link.Matrix-converter topologies can be divided into two types: direct matrix converters (MCs) and indirect matrix converters(2MCs). Even though this topology has some disadvantages, such as limited voltage transfer ratio (0.86)and a high number of power semiconductor device requirements,the matrix converter has received extensive research attention due to its significant advantages: adjustable input power factor, regeneration capability, and high-quality input current waveforms.This topology has the advantage that generated voltage of PMSG is converted into desired AC output voltage without theneed of any intermediate AC to DC conversion stage. In [Alejandro Garces, Marta Molinas et.al Jan. 2012]the output of PMSG is converted by a Reduced Matrix Converter (RMC), placed in the nacelle of each turbine, into ahigh frequency single phase AC voltage. A high frequencytransformer of reduced weight and size is used for insulationpurposes.