Introduction This essay will reflect on my personal experience, skills, and knowledge gained from my studies and practice of undertaking blood pressure (Bp) whilst completing my professional placement. Bp may be defined as a force of blood against vessel walls in the body, consisting of systolic and diastolic pressure measured in millimeters of mercury. (Waugh and Grant, 2016) Systolic pressure occurs when the hearts left ventricle contracts and forces blood into the aorta causing a heightened atrial pressure, while diastolic pressure refers to complete cardiac diastole, this is when the aortic valve closes and pressure is at its lowest between beats, blood moves into smaller corresponding vessels and the heart rests.
The natural pacemakers of the heart called SA (Sino-atrial) node. SA is in the grooves where the superior vena cava meets the right atrium. After SA generates electrical signals, the cardiac impulse travels across the walls of the atria causing the atria to contract. The impulses generated by the SA node are also transmitted to the atrioventricular (AV) node located in the lower part of the right atrium near the right ventricle. When the electrical signals reach the ventricle walls from pacemakers, ventricles contract and builds up the pressure which pushes blood and opens semilunar valves.
This type of shock occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood effectively. This is evident to patients who have had myocardial infarction, such as John’s case. In this illness, the heart has decreased contractility resulting to decreased cardiac output. Such decrease will stimulate the sympathetic nervous system to activate the compensatory mechanism by increasing the heart rate as evident in John’s vital sign to increase the peripheral pressure and ventricular
Thus, the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate, and the forced contractions widen the airways making it easier to breathe. Your body now releases stored energy, which allows for increased strength in muscles, and can also cause your palms to sweat, pupils to dilate, and hair to stand up. The parasympathetic division is most active during resting conditions, hence, why it can also be called, “rest and digest”. This division controls body processes during ordinary situations. It generally slows down your heart rate and decreases your blood
How the cardiovascular system works? Image result for the cardiovascular system heart without labels The cardiovascular system consists of two circuits that blood travels through; pulmonary and systemic. Exercise has an impact on these systems, causing the heart to pump blood faster around the body, which allows you to exercise for longer.
ne of the most significant present discussions on Mental Health is the physical health of people with severe Mental illness (SMI). It is getting increasing difficult to dismiss due to years of neglect, which, as a result, has a negative impact on a patient with SMI. The main issues addressed in this essay are the learning out (LO 1, 2, 3 and 4).
Hypertension affects the cardiovascular system and is associated with kidney disease, stroke, and myocardial infarction. (McCance 1149). Hypertension involves the combination of genetics and environmental risks along with the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS), and natriuretic peptides. The SNS promotes cardiac contractility and heart rate and induces arteriolar vasoconstriction leading to the maintenance of blood pressure and tissue perfusion. (McCance 1150).
By blocking alpha receptors, this adds to the blood vessel dilating effects. Some of the beta blockers have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), which means they mimic the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine and cause an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. (Ogbru & Marks,
A bundle branch block anatomy involves the heart, but specifically the electrical nodes of the heart and the chambers of the heart. The electrical nodes of the body act as a pacemaker to help the heart correctly beat. The sinoatrial node (SA node) will send impulses to help the heart to contract. This impulse is sent to the upper chamber of the heart and then passes through the atrioventricular node (AV node). This impulse is sent through a pathway
Our hearts serves as biological pumps responsible for pumping blood through blood vessels to body tissues. The hearts pumps blood by undergoing cycles of contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) in what is referred to as cardiac cycles. Each cardiac cycle, therefore, represents one heart bit. The number of heart bits per minute is referred to as the heart rate. The pumping mechanism of the heart is dependent on the pressure differences created in the chambers of the heart following the contraction and relaxation of heart muscles.
Those receptors are located on the membranes of neurоns and оther cells and use second messengers, which involves increase in Ca2+ levels, to transmit signals. When acetylcholine (ACh) binds to mAChR, the receptor undergoes a conformational change, which activates the G-protein. Such receptors play important role in physiolоgical functions such as heart rate, smooth muscle contraction, cognition and release of neurоtransmitters. Type 1 mAChR (M1) is a receptor involved in cognitive prоcessing and M2 is involved in cognitive prоcessing and decreasing heart rate. Moreover, their binding sites are very similar.
These beta receptors are responsible for increasing contractility and increasing pulse. By blocking these receptors with a beta blocker the medication decreases the force of contractions in the ventricles as well as decreases heart rate. The decrease in contractility and heart rate lead to lower cardiac output