The next-of-kin do not authorize and may not limit the extent of the autopsy. Common questions include the identity of the deceased person, the time of injury and death and the presence of medical evidence (for example bullets, hair, fibre’s, semen). Observations made at autopsy elucidate how and by what weapon lethal injury was inflicted.
Identification is important when unknown, fragmentary, burned or decomposed remains are recovered. This becomes more important especially in cases of major mass disasters where numbers of individuals are involved. Personal identification in broad terms includes estimation of age, sex, stature, and ethnicity. These estimations can be done by using various scientific techniques which can narrow down the range of individuals from the pool of possible victims or criminals (Nafte, 2009). Human impressions such as finger prints, lip prints, ear prints and foot prints are widely available at the crime scenes.
69) ‘‘confronts the question of how images make meanings head on. It is not simply descriptive nor does it rely on quantitative estimations of significance’’. Rose states that the semiotic analysis involves ‘‘taking an image apart and tracing how it works in relation to broader systems of meaning’’ (Ibid). In other words, semiotics primarily asks about the ways through which the meaning is generated instead of simply exploring what it is. My study will bring examples of manipulated debatable photos and semiotically analyze how a specific re-touch, cropping for example, made by photojournalist or photo-editor might alter the meaning of the photo.
Interviews with key medical laboratory personnel in hospitals in the nation and in in the province showed occurence of transfusion reactions. Considering the critical role of blood transfusion as remedy in the medical field, it is important to analyze the profile of transfusion reactions in transfused patients and investigate the associated factors. The result of such investigation will contribute to the enhancement of laboratory management particularly in blood banking and ultimately the reassurance for a safe and successful blood
153). A photograph can be regarded as a fragment of a bigger picture - the photographer captures a part of the truth, which he decides to show the rest of the world. Strictly speaking, when it comes to street photography, the photographed scene must not be staged in order for it to be considered a true reflection of the real world.
Nurses being responsible for the final bedside check before transfusion, have the final opportunity to prevent a mistransfusion. An understanding and knowledge of the pathophysiology of transfusion reactions, symptoms and treatment is essential to safely administer and monitor transfusions
This phase helps the doctor understand the burn type and decide the treatment mode accordingly. The management phase involves aspects such as prevention of loss of body fluids (which usually accompanies burns), thermoregulation and prevention of infections, apart from the actual treatment. Dressing of wounds is very essential to prevent infections and fluid loss.
Blood Pressure Monitors Blood pressure monitors read your blood pressure and over the counter, models are normally automatic and the accuracy can vary. Most of them will read both the systolic and diastolic pressure and often have heart rate indicators as well. Blood pressure monitors are either wrist type or upper arm type and it is up to the individual which one they prefer. The upper arm types are generally used in clinics or hospitals. It is a good idea to monitor your blood pressure because it will help prevent heart-related problems.
Thus, preserving crime scene evidence is often one of the first ‘fast- track’ action which the police would normally perform straight after the crime unless, there is an injured victim, as then that would be a much critical task for the police, as preserving life means securing important eyewitnesses. In good practice, the police usually access and collect as much information as possible right after the incident, which is also referred to the ‘golden hour’. This is to ensure that valuable evidence is collected with minimum chances of being tampered or destroyed (Stelfox, 2012: 152), in particularly forensic samples, which are prone to contamination when the crime scene is at outdoor (UNODC, 2009:
fascial and muscle layers) of the incision. At least one of the following must also be present: • Purulent drainage from the deep incision but not from the organ or space component of the surgical site. • Wound dehisces or is deliberately opened by the surgeon when the patient has one of the following: fever (>38oC) or localized pain or tenderness, unless the site is culture negative. • An abscess or other sign of deep infection is found by radiological examination, direct examination, during re-operation or by
artery, whether the injury is covered by apparel, and the position of the victim when the injury was inflicted. Arterial blood staining is accompanied by demonstrable arterial damage. The hypothesis of a bloodstain pattern being the result of arterial spurting would be supported by identifying information within the autopsy report about a severed artery. A bloodstain analyst would require to review the bloodstain pattern by conducting an autopsy report, or verbalize directly to the forensic pathologist who conducted the autopsy report. These patterns are customarily very distinctive due to the overall quantity of bloodstains observed.
When an area in a suspect location has been partially cleaned, that should always raise a red flag for investigators. Something was there and has been removed that the offender did not want anyone else to see. Whether it is blood or not remains to be definitively tested, but it is still clear that something is present and raises suspicion. Void patterns indicating that an object has been moved also gives ample reason to believe something may have been there and cleaned up, especially when it is clear it has been sitting there for a long time. Identifying and collecting these latent bloodstains can easily be done with luminol in an interior environment such as this one.
Besides giving an entire picture of the scene, it allows for proof that the evidence was collected properly. Furthermore, a sketch of the crime scene would need to be drawn to scale. During the collection process, every piece of evidence would have to be recorded and documented with the location where obtained from the scene. Example could include weapons, clothing, fingerprints, etc.
According to Daubert, the “smell of death” evidence would have had to meet the criteria in order for it to be used as reliable evidence. First, the evidence needs to be tested to see if the expert can receive the same result each time, it needs to be done.
Collect and retain samples of bodily fluid for potential toxicological analysis is always appropriate in every autopsy that is undertaken to determine the cause of a person 's death (Gregory G Davis, 2014). Urine is ideally suited for a rapid screening, but blood or even brain matter is also suitable samples for