Esme Codell is a fifth grade teacher at a brand new public school in Iowa. Codell is a stellar example in applying different theories to classroom practices. She applies all of the learning theories in her classroom daily. To start, Codell applies the behavioral learning theories three different principles in her classroom.
As opposed to Redl and Wattenberg 's speculations about educators; Skinner 's hypothesis expresses that carrying on understudies will keep on showing positive conduct. The making trouble understudies, seeking the uplifting feedback, will start to act suitably. Redl and Wattenberg 's (1959) hypotheses have contributed essentially to classroom administration. Center school instructors can take a few bearings from those hypotheses. Some of which are understanding gathering progress where one sixth grade educator set up a standard that understudies must raise their hands to answer an inquiry.
Reflection Paper 1 About the explicit curriculum Vs implicit curriculum In order to clarify about preferring of explicit curriculum or implicit curriculum, the learners must be understood how both curriculums works as a field of education. Teachers designing their curriculum must consider how the environment of the classroom will impact students. A student will learn from what is taught in a class and from how that class is taught. That student will also take lessons from how her/his class and school are organized.
In this regard, Shah (2009) states that nonverbal behaviors are the exposition and performance of both techers and students in different activities in teaching and lerarning process. I agree that behavior is an action of an individual which are used for specific purpose. But in the context of teaching and learning process, the action and strategies used by either teacher or student represent their behaviors that may influence teaching and learning. In general, we can say that there are different behaviors used in teaching and learning environment. The division of behaviors can be done with differently such as positive behavior and negative behaviors, verbal behavior and nonverbal behavior and so on.
Students become self-reflected learners; they take responsibility for their own learning. The key to assessment as learning enables students to develop the capacity to monitor their own work in progress which the teachers support through encouragement and monitoring. ( Dear Hammond, L. (2012) Based on curriculum expectations and the achievement charts, the students are taught to use rubrics, samples and models as a good practice. In addition, formative assessment is a procedure utilized by instructors and students amid guideline that gives unequivocal input to alter progressing educating and figuring out how to enhance students ' accomplishment of planned instructional outcomes. Formative evaluation is a technique for persistently assessing students ' scholastic needs and advancement inside the classroom and goes before nearby benchmark appraisals and state-commanded summative assessments.
How do learners learn in learner-centred teaching? The term 'learner-centred' depicts that learners are the active agents who determine how learning occurs. They "influence the content, activities, materials, and pace of learning" (Froyd & Simpson, 2000) and thus take responsibility of their own learning. The teacher, who takes the role of facilitator and coach, plays the key role of creating the necessary environment for the students so that they can learn independently.
Teachers should get support in form of supervision. It can be seen from the research that teachers expressed their confusion regarding assessment in general and formative assessment in particular. Therefore, the school management needs to provide opportunities for their teachers to participate in a variety of professional development such as workshops, seminars and in-service programs. The programs should particularly focus on helping teachers have general knowledge of formative assessment by providing some technical terms related to formative assessment. In addition to this, these programs also help teachers realize the importance of using formative assessment as well as encourage them to develop skills required for using
(Cambridge Assessment Network Keynote, 2006). Students have different learning skills and it will be important for teachers to take into considerations to recognize them and balance the assessment of their need. This study found out that when the strategies used are effective for all students. Furthermore, assessing students is necessary measure the effectiveness of instruction, good assessments are constructed based on what works for students (Regier, 2012). However, research has shown that assessment instruments need be to appropriate to the materials or subject being taught.
Another quote is " Assessment has several important purposes, including informing how teachers plan learning experiences, identifying areas of learning and development where children may need support or extension, to make valued learning visible, and integrating learning with curriculum and program provision" (Mclachlan). The author is making clear with assessments it is helping everyone because there is a major meaning to having them. It shows the way teachers communicate planned learning experiences to prepare for test. To represent how the teacher prepares the students to learn the components that are going to be on the test. Like stated before, it gives the teacher to see where the students ' strong points are or where their weaknesses are and need to work on that specific topic.
It also helps to measure the teachers teaching as both are actively involved in the process. Assessment can be summative or formative. Formative assessment starts from gauging the prior knowledge of the learner to the mid plenary and the differentiated task done by the students. Group and pair discussions, Self and peer marking done by the students, a detailed analysis of the students work or a simple answer given by the learner during the lesson. Taking learner feedback helps teachers to identify individual or group needs of learning.