Bluetongue Case Study

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Introduction
Bluetongue is an infectious, non-contagious viral disease of ruminants and camelids transmit¬ted by Culicoides biting midges. It is caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV) and is placed in the epizooties list of diseases international. The manifestations of bluetongue range from an in apparent to a fatal outcome depending on the serotype and strain of the virus and the species, breed and age of the infected animal; older ani¬mals are generally more susceptible. Clinical signs are usually detected in fine-wool breeds of sheep and the white-tailed deer and include fever, facial oedema, haemorrhages into, and ulceration on, the oral mucosa and coronitis. Bluetongue typi¬cally occurs when susceptible animal species are introduced into areas with circulating virulent BTV strains, or when virulent BTV strains extend their range to previously
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The signs are based on the incubation period which is from 4 to 8 days (Sperlova and Zendulkova., 2011) is followed by tachypnea, fever, apathy, and hyperaemia of the lips and nostrils with excessive salivation and nasal discharge that is clear in colour. Oedema knows as the condition where there is an excess of fluid in tongue the cavities of the body, the affected animal will show oedema of the tongue, lips, and some appears in the ears. Bluetongue virus has been shown to affect mostly fine wool sheep breeds. In some rare cases Cyanotic is encountered. Actual affected sheep show coronitis, laminitis and necrosis of muscles resulting in difficulties in standing and reluctant to move. Bluetongue virus in pregnant animal can cause abortion, foetal mummification and animal can give birth to weak offspring with high chances of congenital defects e.g. retinal dysplasia, cerebral cysts etc. however it makes the animal to be more susceptible to other

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