According to Baran (2012) mass communication can be defined as “the process of creating shared meaning between the mass media and their audiences.” This essay aims to discuss the degree to which we are shaped by our interaction with the media. In order to achieve the aforementioned aim of this essay I will focus on the following: limited-effects theory, two-step flow theory, attitude change theory and agenda setting. The limited effects theory sets out that media influence is based on individual and social characteristics.
Like political culture and the public political efficacy, perception/ public opinion can be influenced by the individual efficacy and the media effects, Lindsay Hoffman observes that, despite the media flow in content, media have a chance in setting public agenda and orientation beyond individual characteristics; individuals might interpret information differently to create contextual data. Other theorists argue about the role played by bureaucrats in influencing public perception, they ascertain that politicians and bureaucrats play an important role in manufacturing public opinion through a series of activities ranging from channeling televised programs, visits, and engaging in activities to mold certain orientation. 2.3.1 Spiral of Silence Theory The theory of Spiral of Silence was founded by Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann to entail the process of public opinion formation whereby an individual will refrain from expressing opinion whenever he/ she faces uncertainty over his viewpoints. The lack of self certainty is said to be influenced by social environment; Social environment is more influenced by media, and individuals
According to the Critical/Cultural Theory, the media industry almost always exploits the masses. This industry produces formulized media content that appeals to mass audiences with the intent of displaying their own values and social/political status quo. While some may argue that the media is simply “displaying” content, it still undoubtedly has an effect on our lives whether it be directly or subconsciously. Often times, this is shown in a form of presenting stereotypes in genders, politics, races, age, sexual orientation, etc. In terms of how dominant ideology comes into play with the Critical/Cultural Theory, many of these stereotypes are denoted as a display of dominant ideology.
Tae Kyun Kim Donna T. Middleton English 101 Peer Review 10-9-16 The Perfect Match “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” is mentioned in the Declaration of Independence. Everyone has a desire to pursue happiness, and everyone deserves to pursue happiness. For this being the reason, one of the most popular subjects of many advertisements and commercials is happiness to target consumers so that they will be drawn to their messages.
The goal of rhetorical analysis is to take into consideration the purpose, audience, genre, stance, and design of the given media. This relates to the whole idea of denotation and connotation. Denotation is the literal meaning of a word while the connotation is the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions based on that word. You are not talking about what the message of the media is that the author or producer is trying to show their audience, but rather how they have produced the media to share with their
The theory explains “how individuals use mass communication to gratify their needs” (Burgeon, Hunsaker and Dawson, 1994, cited in Udende and Azeez, 2010, p. 34). The theory holds that “people influence the effects that mass media have on them” (Anaeto et al, 2008 cited in Edegoh, Asemah and Nwammuo, 2013, p. 23). The assumption of the theory is that people are not just passive receivers of media messages; rather, they actively influence the message effects. Media audience selectively choose, attend to, perceive and retain media offerings on the basis of their needs, beliefs, etc., thus, “there are as many reasons for using the media as there are media users”
The Uses and Gratification theory by Elihu Katz came into existence when the theorist concocted the idea that individuals utilize the media to their advantage. The point of view rose in the mid 1970 's as Katz and his two associates, Jay Blumler and Michael Gurevitch kept on extending the thought. The theory was contemporary since it repudiated more seasoned perspectives that expected the gathering of people was an inactive gathering. The Uses and Gratifications Approach sees the gathering of people as dynamic, implying that they effectively search out particular media and substance to accomplish certain outcomes or delights that fulfill their own needs.
In The views of The Birmingham School, media culture induces individuals to conform to the established organization of society but it also lends resources that can empower individual against that society. (Kellner, D (1995)) In conclusion, calling attention to mass media, cultural studies relates to how the audience can decode the messages put forward by the media. More specifically in relation to their individual socio and economic background. This in turn can lead to the rejection of the dominant ideology.