Body Composition Analysis

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Abstract
The health risks (comorbidities) associated with obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure and stroke has also increased. It is imperative that we regularly assess levels of overweight and obesity to inform health policies and intervention strategies. The use of valid and reliable assessment tools for overweight and obesity at community level is therefore of great importance. There are numerous methods available to assess body composition. However, there is no single universally recommended method for body composition assessment. Criterion methods include densitometry (underwater weighing), computed X-ray tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and DXA (Martini&Nath, 2009). These
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However, there is no single universally recommended method for body composition assessment. Criterion methods include densitometry (underwater weighing), computed X-ray tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and DXA (Martini & Nath, 2009). These methods are in most instances not suitable for assessing body composition at the community level as they are not cost effective and time consuming. Indirect methods, including anthropometry (weight, stature, abdominal circumference, and skinfold measurements, BMI, waist-hip-ratio) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), provide estimates or indices of body composition mass and fat mass by measuring the resistance of the body as a conductor of a very small electrical current. These indirect methods are relative cheap and easy to implement at community level (Tanamas,…show more content…
As a result, indirect methods tend to have larger prognostic errors than direct methods and are affected by sample specificity and disease conditions.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of body composition. BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight and dividing by their height squared. BMI is an indicator of excessive fatness as well as an indicator of whether the individuals is underweight, it is not necessarily an accurate indicator in all individuals such as muscular individuals, elderly or pregnant women.(Vazquez, 2007)

Waist circumference (WC) is a measurement taken around the abdominal at the level of the umbilicus. Health care professionals use this as an indicator of obese as well as health relate problems. WC on its own cannot determine your medical condition but helps identify where excessive fat is locate. (Vieira,

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