Additionally, personality, likeability, similarity of endorser would also affect the perception of attractiveness from the consumers. Many researchers suggested that attractiveness is the first judgement that made by individuals to another. It is true because beauty will made a better first impression towards celebrity endorser and brand image. Attractive endorsers tend to be more effective in product promotion and attract consumer’s attention. Therefore, they were often featured in the mass media and print media.
The word “Body” is slightly larger than the other words of the slogan, followed by “By Victoria” aligned underneath on the right. The product line that the ad is trying to sell is called “Body by Victoria” so it cleverly combines the product name and the positive message in order for us to remember the product name. However, the caption below the catchphrase uses ridiculous rhetorical questions to make us doubt our physique and lower our self-esteem. “Is it sexy?” Why do I have to be sexy? The original purpose of lingerie is for hygienic reasons.
Cognitive body image includes the beliefs and self-statements about the appearance a person has about their body (e.g. attractive / unattractive). It is the picture one has in their mind about their appearance (i.e. size and shape) of their body (Delinsky, 2011:180). The emotional (affective) dimension relates to experiences of appearance.
Nowadays, media has influenced the public and society especially on body image. Body image can be described as a representation of how a person feels about and sees their body. People’s self image can be affected by their own perceptions and by the feedback from the person of those around them (McVey, Murphy & Harrison, 2008). A poor body image can causes many negative psychological and physical effects. Today, not only western culture, people from all over the word has an obsession with being skinny, look perfect and also wanted to look like their idols that they have been admired especially from the media.
The average women model in the U.S. weighs 120 lbs. The average women in the U.S. weighs around 160 lbs. Society thinks that they need to be comparable to the people in the media, and that is why a collection of people have eating disorders. There is no denying that the media gives a certain perception of body image. When a person has negative feelings about his/her own body, body dissatisfaction can develop.
In modern society, thechanging times as well as media executives wanting more ratings (and therefore money) have led toteenagers more willing to try sexual acts at a younger age and the country being more open-mindedabout sexual issues.The main cause behind the increase of an obsession with sex is media executives wantbetter ratings and so they will shove more provocative and disturbing images into the public eye. DanJaffe, executive Vice President of the Association of National Advertisers claims, "If everyone is really soupset, the no one would be watching. The best test is whether the ratings go down" (qtd. by Clark, "Sex,Violence"). At one point the FOX network was one of the worst at offending and upsetting many people,including the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
The perception is also created by the trend of a certain time and by what people regard as either acceptable or unacceptable. This perception is called body image, a picture of one`s own physical look established by self-observation and by noting the reactions of others. Someone’s body image can be influenced positively or negatively by the media. The role of advertisements:
Unfortunately, men and women are being pressured by the standard of attractiveness that society is living up to. According to Russello (2009) regarding self-esteem, having a high level of self-esteem can keep people from receiving and having negative effects when it comes to the influence of the media. On the other hand, having low self-esteem may be vulnerable to be influenced by the images seen in the media. Russello (2009) cited Hatoum & Belle (2004); Posavac & Posavac (2002) that based on the research shown, having low self-esteem in both men and women are being more conscious or concern on their weight compare to those with a high level of
As noted earlier, failure to conform to these media images, results in persons regarding their bodies negatively and developing low-self-esteem. (Russello 2013) claims that both men and women are confronted with pressures from the media to conform to society's attractiveness ideal. The study points out that man are not pressured to be thin, but to be muscular. The media exposure has been shown to elevate men’s concern about muscularity, fitness and overall body satisfaction. Rusello further states that the handsome man always gets the beautiful woman and this places pressure to adhere to society’s ideals of what is attractive and what is not.
For the purpose of this study body image will be defined as: a person's thoughts and beliefs (cognitive), perception (perceptual), attitude (behavioural) and feelings about their own physical appearance (affective), usually in relation to the media, other women or in relation to their sociocultural beauty "ideal". It is an individual's concept of his or her own body (Viviani, F., Dionisio, E., Biague, F. Bagnol, F., Zecchinato, C. & Scarcella,