The second is that a word may change to be more subjective and toward expressing what can be possible. Although there are no apparent laws in semantic change, many types of sematic change have been identified. The most general way to describe the change, is with the term ‘semantic shift’, this shows just the slight change. If the word is studied closer, even the semantic shift can be classified into more specific form of change. There are different types of change which are noticed.
In every discipline and in certain genres (such as the empirical research report), some phrases are so specialized or conventional that you can’t paraphrase them except by wordy and awkward circumlocutions that would be less familiar (and thus less readable) to the audience. When you repeat such phrases, you’re not stealing the unique phrasing of an individual writer but using a common vocabulary shared by a community of
However, rarely we speak without any non-verbal cues. Almost always the spoken word goes with the nonverbal behaviour There are two dimensions in a communication process: the content and the relational dimension. The message as expressed in actual words is the content dimension. The relational dimension or the meta-communication (i.e., communication about communication), refers to the how the receiver receives the verbal content and this depends on the non-verbal cues / communication that go along with the spoken word. Nonverbal communication is often unconscious though sometimes it is deliberate and conscious behaviour.
Body language is also very compatible with relationships outside of work, for example in dating, and in families. “People need realness, reality.People can sense when someone is being pretentious or fake.It’s because you feel it;you see it in someone’s body language” Christian Louboutin ,Said
Nida. The concept of functional adequacy in translating has been described in a number of books and articles as “dynamic equivalence”. In Toward a Science of Translating (Nida, 1964) dynamic equivalence has been treated in terms of the “closest natural equivalent”, but the term “dynamic ” has been misunderstood by some persons as referring only to something which has impact. Accordingly, many individuals have been led to think that if a translation has considerable impact then it must be a correct example of dynamic equivalence. Because of this misunderstanding and in order to emphasize the concept of function, it has seemed much more satisfactory to use the expression “functional equivalence” in describing the degrees of adequacy of a translation.
The structural–functional approach adopts an objectivist approach and takes a specific interest in the cognitive-behavioural dimension regarding an individual’s body experiences (Cash, 2004:39). This approach has also accumulated a considerable amount of information on body image since the 1960’s. The aim of Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe and Tantieff-Dunn (1999:4) was to conclude in a professional consensus about the conceptual structure of body image as an “internal representation of your own outer appearance”. According to Fisher (2000:4) body image contains the total, subjective experience of individuals regarding their body appearance. It is subjective because it represents how an individual sees themselves, “the view from inside”, as opposed to the objective image, the “view from outside”, how other people see the individual (Cash, 1990:51).
But in some cases of speaking too, they have the liberty to plan what to express based on with whom they are going to have interaction, presentations, discussions, debates, lectures, interviews, or talks. They have to be a little extemporaneous. They also cannot take back their words once spoken. In fact, Communication both in writing and speaking is so rich and varied, that it differs from person to person. The communication of every individual has its own style, words, perceptions, expressions, observations, information, and ideology.
Assignment No 1 Sound System Of English Language The Sound Systems In any sound system there is a relationship between the sound system and the spelling system. In English sound system there is a relation between sound and spelling system. Nevertheless, the connection between sound and spelling is neither candid nor recognisable. If it remained, many of us could spell more exactly than we do. The sounds of English are not the same as the letters of English that is recognisable The patterning founded in the sound system of English is a reflection of physiology of the vocal tract.
When people communicate among themselves, majority of the exchange is done by body movements or language this is known as non verbal communication. Some people use this as a way to enhance the message being sent to the receiver. “We express our overall style of communicating nonverbally. In effect, nonverbal communication functions as the language of relationships” ( Kuparinen 1992).Some non verbal communicators can be dictated different by another culture in some areas. The differences vary among cultures in some areas.
Furthermore, whereas writing is awholly linguistic activity, speaking includes extra-linguistic elements that includes—voice, gesture, presence etc. which help to give it a more nearly total expressiveness. Ordinary speech is the basis of all language, including the prestige-bearing language of literature. The prestige which literature properly enjoys, while intrinsically unobjectionable, can be harmful if it leads—as it sometimes does—todepreciation of other language uses. The descriptive emphasis in modern linguistics is