Gandhi’s teachings inspired a plethora of people all over the nation. In the early 1900s, Gandhi was a key figure in as an immigrant in South Africa where he participate in numerous of hungry strikes and other nonviolent protest. Gandhi was also imprisoned several times for his passive resistance to oppression and he was one of the leading figures who advocated for India’s Independence against Great Britain. One of his most famous movements was the Salt March in “April-May 1930 in which thousands of Indians followed Gandhi from Ahmadabad to the Arabian Sea. The march resulted in the arrest of nearly 60,000 people, including Gandhi himself” (History Online).
Malcolm X 's approach towards racial equality was always "by any means necessary", meaning he promoted followers of the Islam religion to defend themselves and do what they had to do. Malcolm X believed African-Americans didn 't need to fight for civil rights in a country where they were only brought to as slaves. He wanted them to embrace their roots and isolate themselves. The main conflict between Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X was violence or nonviolence. Malcolm X 's violent approach towards equality came from his childhood and Islamic religion.
Not only did the Trans-Saharan trade routes bring commodities such as gold and salt but the Islamic religion as well. Before the Islam reached Sub-Saharan West Africa, Animism was the main religion of Sub-Saharan West Africa. Animism is the belief in numeral spiritual beings that are concerned with human affairs and that they are capable for either helping or harming human instincts. Additionally, kin played a crucial role in early Sub-Saharan societies since who you were related to directly influenced your role in your society. The Islamic empire conquered parts of North Africa which helped spread the influence and wealth of Islam.
The word “Janjaweed” in Arabic translations means, “A man with a gun on a horse”. The Janjaweed men primarily came from “Arab” nomadic tribes who were always at odds with the “African” farmers. The government-supported Janjaweed militia were responsible for most of the atrocity crimes. Beginning in 2003, the Janjaweed militia began destroying villages and towns the people of African tribes occupied to chime into the uprising. An estimate of 400,000 people were killed in 2003 directly or indirectly from the attacks.
In Islam, jihad is an established doctrine that is codified in a collection of six hadiths known as the Sunnah (Roshandel & Chada, 2006, p. 42). According to the Sunnah, jihad exists in two forms. Greater jihad is the struggle with one’s inner self, and lesser jihad is the struggle with the enemies of Islam. It is concept of lesser jihad that serves as the foundation and justification of radical Islamic terrorists, in particular radical (Salafi) Sunni groups, who form the core of the Global Jihadist Movement (Roshandel & Chada, 2006, p.
Ali Shariati is a Shi’a Muslim living in Iran. Iran is an Islamic country to which majority is Shi’ite. Shariati is a revolutionary thinker, philosopher activist and one of the brilliant modern interpreters of Islam. He was described by Muhammad Tariq as, “a reactionary fanatic who rejects anything new without knowledge nor he was an intellectual imitating the western perspectives without his independent judgement (Tariq, n.d.)”. He studied Islam and presented an Islamic critiques in response to the young Muslims who are being influenced by the western thoughts of capitalism or Marxism.
(SOURCE) Boko Haram is an Islamist terrorist group that in the last decade was responsible for a series of attacks on the Nigerian population and killing hundreds of innocent civilians and abducting hundreds of girls from their homes. The terroristic group was founded and led by a extremist named Mohammed Yusuf, which claimed that Islam should be followed by all Nigerian people and that the economic disparity between the South and the North is because the Christian South is corrupt and greedy. Overall, most of Nigeria’s economy relies on oil production, however, the system is extremely corrupt and the governments lacks money to build schools and other important facilities. One of the key events of the Boko Haram conflict with the Nigerian authorities was in 2009, in an attack against Operation Flush II where the police injured several members. After which, Yusuf ordered violence on the military known as the five-day uprising where the Boko Haram group attacked police stations and killed several soldiers.
EVOLUTION OF BOKO HARAM The Islamist group Jama'atu Ahl al‐Sunnah li‐Da'awati wal‐Jihad, commonly referred to as Boko Haram, has emerged as a violent challenger to the authority of the Nigerian state. Boko Haram is an Islamic sect that believes northern politics has been seized by a group of corrupt, false Muslims. It wants to wage a war against them, and the Federal Republic of Nigeria generally, to create a ‘pure’ Islamic state ruled by sharia law. Islam first appeared in the territory that is now northeast Nigeria sometime during the seventh and eighth centuries of the Common Era, although it was slow to spread in terms of numbers of converts. In the early 19th century, Sheik Usman dan Fodio launched an Islamic reform movement, aimed at removing Hausa leaders he saw as corrupt and as ‘indulging’ un‐Islamic practices.
The Shi 'a credit the Prophet 's family and close associates. The Sunnis consider the Hadiths and Sunnah narrated by any of twelve thousand companions of the Prophet to be well founded. Shi 'as admit that the Hadiths and Sunnah are functional texts relating to Islamic jurisprudence, however, they put emphasis on the need to be deeply analyzed. Therefore, the interpretation and understanding of the laws in the matter of practices of Islam vary considerably between the two faiths. Sunni Islam, include four schools of jurisprudence that provide different interpretations of legal decisions that may impact in a variety of ways the lives of Muslims.
Created in 2002 it gained influence only after 2009 with a turning point in its strategy. Since then it did not stop to expand itself perpetrating mass murders in the country but also across the borders. In this case “the movement Boko Haram is not so much political: not because he is carrying a project of an Islamic society, but because it catalyses the anguish of an unfinished nation and reveals the intrigues of an illegitimate power”. The aspects which made its expansion viable, as stated in the second part, are the following: a weak state unable to counter the phenomenon, its sources of financing coming from different parts of the society and the world, and an important communication in order to diffuse its propaganda and attract more and more people. Eventually, its specificity compared to its Islamic forerunners is essentially its terrorist drift in a country which during the 1980s and the 1990s experienced a few attacks but until now no suicide bombing.