Grutter V. Bollinger Research Paper 2 Abstract Barbara Grutter (plaintiff) which is a resident of Michigan who was denied admissions into the University of Michigan Law School. Lee Bollinger (defendant) was president of the University of Michigan. Grutter filed this suit because the University had discriminated against the basis of race. Supreme Court ruled that the use of affirmative action in school admissions is constitutional if it treats race as some factor.
St. Mary’s Honor Center v. Hicks (1993) According to the EEOC (2014), the Civil Rights Act of 1964 revision spoke directly to damages in cases of intentional discrimination in employment. Prior to this revision and since this revision, there have been and are still employment discrimination cases going before the courts. This Act forbids employment discrimination based on race, sex, religion, national origin, physical disability, and age in any aspect of the employment process. Anyone who feels they have been discriminated against should file a suit against should file a claim with the Equal Opportunity Commission, who is charged with enforcing anti-discrimination cases.
-When it was learned that Plessy was of mixed race, he was thrown off the train and immediately arrested and put in jail. -He was convicted of violating a law that justified the separation of races on trains. 2. Procedural history: -In the district court, Plessy was charged for violating the law but countered that this decision was unconstitutional. -The district court then filled a demurrer stating that unless “enjoined by a writ of prohibition” (p. 1), Plessy would still have to plead guilty for his actions.
The Virginia Military Institute (VMI) was founded in 1839 as an all-male institution. VMI used an adversarial style method of training and there was no equal educational opportunity equal to VMI afforded to women in the state. VMI is a state-supported college and subject to the state of Virginia’s legislative control. By the mid-1970’s VMI was the only single-sex public college in Virginia. In 1990 the United States sued the State of Virginia and VMI in District Court alleging that VMI’s all male admission policy violated the equal protection clause of the Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment.
“Generation Debt” by Alethea Spiridon is an argumentative essay that outlines the harsh reality of student loans. The author examines the consequences of student loans as well the reasons higher education should not come as an expense to the individual pursuing it. In the current job market a post-secondary degree is a prerequisite for almost any profession and the sad reality is that this costly degree is not a guarantee of future wealth. The author effectively explains why treating education like a luxury good can impoverish everyone, and outlines ways student debt can burden graduates’ lives. However, she fails to examine the reasons student loans can be advantageous, and this is problematic because there are several missing benefits including manageable reimbursement options, lower interest rates, as well as student friendly terms and conditions when compared to a standard loan.
Baca (2004) explains about Native Images in Schools and the Racially Hostile Environment. Baca tries to identify and address the legal standards for the application of regulations about the racially hostile environment to schools having American Indian Mascots by applying some official regulations or acts. Baca (2004), in the article, mentions that in the great race relation happening in America, Native Americans are still treated differently. Treated differently here means though there is title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 stating “prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin in any federally funded program” (Baca, 2004), the offensive act of the use of Native America Imagery still happens since approximately 30 years ago when other racial and ethnic groups could not be treated like that. Baca mentions that even people know, for example, the use of “Redskin” word is offensive, there are some sports teams using “R” words as the nicknames or mascots for their
Procedural history. Barbara Grutter (Plaintiff), a white resident from the state of Michigan, was denied admission to the University of Michigan Law School (Defendant). She sued the Law School in a federal district court, and alleged racial discrimination against her in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment on the basis of the Defendant’s consideration of race as a key factor in the school’s admissions process. The district court upheld the Plaintiff’s claim. The court of appeals reversed.
Barbara Grutter, a white woman applied to the Law School in 1996. She received a 161 LSAT score and obtained an undergraduate GPA of 3.8. Grutter was not admitted at first but placed on a waiting list but ultimately rejected. In 1997, Grutter, similar to Bakke, filed a suit against the Regents of the University of Michigan claiming the she was discriminated against based on her race which violated her Fourteenth Amendment, more specifically the Equal Protection Clause, and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Grutter’s main arguments against the Law School included the fact that she was rejected because the usage of race was a “predominant” factor, allowing racial minority groups “a significantly greater chance of admission than students
He believes that African-Americans are not intelligent enough to go to the University of Texas, therefore, discriminating and being a racist. By separating the whites from the blacks, we are going back to the 1850s when the Jim Crow laws were in effect and separating blacks and whites in schools and other
Many factors influence one’s decision in doing and/or creating something, so, to what extent is it possible to still be original? Original is the idea that something was created directly by one person without the influence or imitation of someone else’s earlier ideas or work. In “Biographies of Hegemony” Karen Ho discusses the challenges that many Ivy League students face while trying to meet their institution 's expectations, as well as the heavy recruitment by Wall Street bankers on college campuses. In “The Naked Citadel” Susan Faludi, addresses the violence among students at the Citadel, as well as their lack of originality and suggests that the cause is due to the rejection of society. In “The Ecstasy of Influence: A Plagiarism” Jonathan
Justice Ruth Ginsburg wrote the dissenting opinion in which she argued the the University treats race as merely one factor in the overall decision to admit a student, which is permissible under previous judicial precedent. The significance of this case is that the decision challenged the precedent set by previous
In Regents of University of California v. Bakke (1978), the Supreme Court ruled that a university 's use of racial "quotas" in its admissions process was unconstitutional, but a school 's use of "affirmative action" to accept more minority applicants was constitutional in some circumstances. " The college was asked to at least consider blacks in the admittance of college and they were asked to not use quotas in the admission
Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, the Supreme Court decided that the amendment of Michigan’s Constitution which banned affirmative action at public institutions was constitutional. Prior to the enactment of this law, Michigan residents had voted in favor of the proposed amendment that prohibited consideration of race or sex in admissions to Michigan’s public universities. In turn, the Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, Integration and Immigration Rights and Fight for Equality by Any Means Necessary, sued state officials-- arguing that this amendment violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth
Affirmative action is the policy of giving special consideration to minorities and women. People should be chosen based on their abilities and not race, or gender. In the case of Gratz v. Bollinger (2003), the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional if affirmative action automatically increases an applicant 's chances over others just because of their race or gender. The University of Michigan used a 150-point scale to rank applicants, with 100 points needed to guarantee admission. The University gave minorities an automatic 20-point bonus towards their score.