Bonanno Case Study

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Introduction
This essay will look into how the concepts of resilience and the four trajectories proposed by Bonanno can be applied in the case studies. The target population of the case studies is people with medical conditions, namely, spinal cord injury, SARS and breast cancer. Furthermore, this essay will focus on the similarities of how people behave when facing a stressful situation. [[[[[Different percentages of trajectories, the possible predictors and the reason of the differences in the percentages of different trajectories]]]]]]

Stressors and effects
The first study is about people suffering from spinal cord injuries. Subjects face chronic stress when dealing with SCI simply because the events leading to SCI could be very traumatizing
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There are two types of appraisals, primary and secondary appraisals ( Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Primary appraisals are evaluations of the situation and whether it is perceived as a threat or challenge. For secondary appraisal, it evaluates coping resources ( Lazarus & Smith, 1988). However, it has been identified that there are 3 factors that affects the reaction to a stressor in primary appraisal: “Threat”, the appraisal of any harm or loss; “Challenge”, the appraisal for mastery and gain; “Loss”, the appraisal of deterioration of self-esteem or health ( Ferguson et al., 1999).

For coping, it affects psychological outcomes in terms of coping strategies followed by a stressor ( Cohen & Lazarus , 1973). One of the coping strategy included in the article which related to SCI and psychological adjustment is the behavioral disengagement. Disengagement refers to the decreased effort to engage with the stressor ( Buckelew et.,
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Therefore, comparing to delayed anxiety group, resilient group showed more SCI linked coping such as acceptance, with fewer functional impairment in problem solving, with better quality of life in social aspects and showed less appraisal of threat.

Compared to anxiety recovery group, resilient group showed fewer appraisal of threat, more SCI linked coping such as acceptance and better quality of life in social aspects. However, anxiety recovery group and the delayed anxiety group did not have much differences on the covariates.

Both showed high percentages of trajectories of low stable symptoms (resilience), a temporary dysfunction that got better by time (recovery), a low dysfunction that elevated over time (delayed). However, according to the best-fitting model, the unconditional and conditional model were only slightly different. As both depression and anxiety symptoms has resilience, recovery and delayed, the only difference is that in the depression symptom model, there were chronic trajectory. But owing to the best-fitting model of anxiety, it did not include chronic trajectory because SCI patients may encounter chronic and lasting depression due to their injuries but anxiety response is more reactive to situational
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