Essay On Bone Morphology

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INTRODUCTION
Bone is a living, complex, hard tissue that constitutes the vertebral skeleton. It is a composite comprising of well-defined structures at different scales of hierarchy. It has an organic matrix phase composed primarily of collagen, with the inorganic phase embedded in it. The calcium and phosphate containing inorganic crystals ultimately form hydroxyapatite. The bone morphology can be describes as comprising of the cortical bone - the outer compact region, and the trabecular bone - the inner spongy region. The composition variations in these regions provide the required anisotropy and consequently the load bearing strength to the bone. The functions of the bone in the body include mechanically supporting soft tissues, protecting vulnerable organs,
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The regeneration process is a well-controlled series of events, involving various cellular components and signaling pathways, aimed to restore the bone function. The main cells responsible for the formation of bone are osteoblasts, which are derived from osteoprogenitor cells. They are present on bone surfaces, and aid in matrix formation and mineralization. They can further turn into bone lining cells if flattened or into osteocytes if they get trapped in the matrix. Osteoblasts are fully differentiated cells, and so formation of bone is entirely dependent on the presence of osteoprogenitor cells, which can migrate to target regions, proliferate and undergo differentiation into osteoblasts. They can be further classified as determined and inducible osteoprogenitor precursors, based on whether a stimulus is required for its differentiation. Osteoclasts also play a major role in bone remodeling. They are associated with the breaking down and resorption of bone tissue during its growth and healing. All of these bone cells are located within and upon the cortical and spongy bone

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