Specifically, inflammation begins when the inflammatory cells reach the wound and generally persists for several days. Upon injury, the resident mast cells undergo degranulation and secrete chemotactic agents that induce neutrophils recruitment. Furthermore, activated platelets also release proteins that stimulate the migration and adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes. Thus, the first inflammatory cells that infiltrate the wound are the neutrophils. These neutrophils, upon infiltration, first attach to the endothelium followed by undergoing diapedesis and migrate towards the area of inflammation.
Bone is a complex, highly organized and specialized connective tissue. It is characterized physically by the fact that it is a tissue that is hard, rigid and strong, and microscopically by the presence of relatively few cells and much intercellular substance formed of collagen fibers and stiffening substances [1,2]. Bone consists of 65% mineral, 35% organic matrix, cells, and water. The bone mineral is in the form of small crystals in the shape of needles, plates, and rods located within and between collagen fibers. The mineral is largely impure hydroxyapatite, Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2, containing constituents such as carbonate, citrate, magnesium, fluoride, and strontium incorporated into the crystal lattice or absorbed onto the crystal surface.
Your doctor will also for imaging testing to view where the bone is broken exactly (X-Ray). B. Bone fracture repair surgery can take several hours you may have been given anesthesia to make you fall asleep 1.When the broken bone has been put back into place properly the doctor will close the incision with stiches C. Treatment depends on many factors such as how serious it is how old the patient is what is they’re physical activity 1. The doctor(s) may need antibiotics to protect against infection the goal in treating fractures is to restore the fracture to its normal position and then immobilize it, 2. Bones begin to grow back soon after they are broken so this should be done by a trained medical person.
This type of injury affects the bone such that the bone has been damaged in a way that it is no longer intact. Bones break when they are unable to withstand a force or trama applied to it. A broken bone or fracture is the forth common injury among children under 6 years of age. In fact 15% of all injuries in children are fractures or broken bone. A broken bone can happen while playing, participating in sports, a fall, or being struck by an object.
The bone matrix is organised in to a three dimensional latticework of bony processes called trabeculae and are arranged along stress lines. Cancellous bones provide structural support and flexibility without the weight of a compact bone Cancellous tissue is highly vascular and frequently contains red bone marrow where the production of red blood cells occur , this is known as haematopoiesis. Cancellous bone can develop into compact bone through the action of bone forming cells, the osteoblasts. The osteoblasts deposit new bone matrix in layers around the trabeculae which enlarge at the expense of spaces between them. Eventually the spaces are eliminated and immature compact bone is produced.
Unsurprisingly, the skeletal system is a living organ, which, habitually requires reparation, which further adds to the complexity of bone. Bone remodelling; a byzantine-coupling between osteocells and immune cells; the remodelling involves a six-step cycle through states of, Quiescence, Resorption, Reversal, Formation, Mineralisation returning to a state of Quiescence. The bone remodelling process ensures prompt repair of microfractures, an exceedingly successful process. Whereupon, the replacement of all spongy/trabeculae bone occurs every 3-5years, and within a 10-year period, an adult’s skeletal system will undergo complete replacement. As a consequence of disease, the balance of this remodelling process skews, creating complications either side.
Human adult skeleton consists of 206 bones, composed of inorganic salts embedded in a framework of collagen fibres. Bones can be classified according to their shape as either long, short, flat or irregular. Long bones are the weight-bearing bones of the body. Their structure provide maximal strength while maintaining minimal weight. They are found in the extremities and include the humerus, radius and ulnar of the arm.
Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering possess a property to heal bone defects in vivo. They are chosen by studying a number of properties including bioactivity (osteo-conductive, osteo-inductive, osseo-integration), cell and tissue compatibility, and load bearing capacity. Any biomaterial considered should possess a structure to promote cell adhesion for the osteoblast, osteoprogenitor or stem cells. There are three major criteria to be noted when a biomaterial is taken for study other than those mentioned previously: (i) Composition - polymer, metals, ceramics etc; (ii) Stability -resorbable, non-resorbable; (iii) Purpose - load bearing, filling material (Schlögl and Winfried,
Research has shown that the structural changes, musculoskeletal remodeling, tissue injury repair, and regeneration of muscles, bones and joints require at least a dozen of weeks to be effective. It is my experience that this is true in the prime of life, but it takes even much more time to adapt and redress as the age increased. Put months ahead of you and plan to slow changes and laborious ones if you are older. Life has given you wisdom that will serve your patience and perseverance when face to arduous evidence. Use