Trauma In Bone

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Bone is one of the most important connective tissues found in the body. It is very intricate, complex and specialised. In addition to providing mechanical support, bone also acts as a reservoir for minerals, mainly calcium and phosphate. The tissue in itself is highly dynamic as it possesses a self-remodelling nature that allows the bone remodel itself depending upon the mechanical loading it encounters, moreover bone can also self-regenerate to a large extent that allows repairing of tissue without a scar. However, traumatic injuries and pathological conditions like osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, tumour and osteogenesis imperfecta can disrupt the functionality of healthy tissue which ultimately leads to immobility, fractures, deformity and severe pain.…show more content…
The stability can be provided either by putting a splint or cast (in case of a minor fracture) or by surgical intervention in the form of metallic intramedullary nails or screws and plates. The time taken for the bone to heal completely depends upon age and the extent of trauma. Thus, many a time non-unions arise in the bone. It then calls upon further surgical procedures in order to allow treatment of bone defects. Clinically, the most commonly employed procedure is autografting followed by allografting; of which autografts are currently considered as the gold standard. However, the entire surgery is expensive and painful. Moreover, these methods have their own limitations, allografts can cause concerns about immunorejection and even transmission of pathogens; whereas the process of autografts requires the patients to undergo two surgeries which can lead to donor site moribidity. Hence, the focus is on new methods for bone tissue engineering that provide a break from the tedious, highly invasive and painful traditional

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