This paper provides a critical review of the existing literature and research on borderline personality disorder. First, there will be an introduction about Diagnostic Statistical Manual 4th Edition criteria and characteristics. Furthermore, risk factors, etiology and theories about borderline personality disorder (BPD) will be presented and discussed, and in the final part, will be introduced the various treatments and intervention plans proposed and applied for BPD, as well as treatment effectiveness and practice. The BPD diagnosis To begin with, the initial definition of BPD was quite vague and unclear, as borderline was lying somewhere between neurosis and psychosis, as it was described by the psychoanalyst Adolf Stern (Stern, 1938). …show more content…
While the validity of BPD is now generally accepted, the etiology of the disorder is still in process of being uncovered and better defined (Zanarini & Frankenburg, 1997). The first attempt belongs to three psychodynamic theories as for instance Kernberg (1975) suggested that excessively early aggression of the child has contributed to split his/her positive and negative images, which was caused by real frustrations. These made the pre-borderline child unable to understand and merge the positive/negative images to reach a more realistic and balanced view of him/her and others. Also, according to Adler and Buie (1979), the failure in early mothering has led the child to a failure in developing stable object constancy, as a result of mother’s inconsistency or insensitivity and non-empathy, which led them to develop an unstable view of them and the world, using stress as a coping mechanism. The last theory of the psychodynamic field (Mahler, 1972), refers to fear of abandonment as the central factor in borderline psychopathology. In this case, the mother seems to get overly-involved in child’s natural autonomous attempts to discover the world by withdrawing emotionally when the child acts in an independent manner (phase of separation-individuation), which causes dysphoria and abandonment panic when later the adult faces a seemingly unsolvable
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1. The name of the client is Liz board line personality disorder. 2. Liz ‘s diagnosis is boarder line personality disorder. Personality disorder- gradual development of inflexible and distorted personality and behavioral patterns that result in persistent maladaptive ways of perceiving, thinking about and relating to the world.
Furthermore, Mahler’s separation-individuation periods, and Bowlby’s attachment phases share similar concepts, which appears to be critical period for development. In particular, child sense of self and changes occur with mother’s involvement as the child becomes less dependent, and practicing periods from both perspectives emphasize children exploration and his or her experience with splitting (e.g. frustration and gratification) and “trust vs mistrust” is evident (Goldstein, 1995). As a result, the child develops maturity with continual recourse for a much greater identity and ego functioning (Goldstein, 1995).
If the claim were true, critics contend, the abuse of millions of children over the years should have caused many cases of insanity; but no evidence exists (Piper, 1998). Limitations of this theory include: The fact that the model is based on behaviours that occur during times of separation/stressful situations rather than in non stressful situations (Field,199,p.543); The list of attachment behaviours is limited to those that occur with the primary attachment figure, typically the mother. However, other attachments are not necessarily characterized by those same behaviours" (Field, 1996, p. 544); The last limitations to the attachment model is that the mother is viewed as the primary attachment figure, when in fact, a father or sibling can have the same type of attachment with the infant at the same time. This leads to the last limitation in the attachment model that "attachment is confined to the infancy and early childhood period, ending, as noted by Bowlby, during puberty.
How many borderlines does it take to change a light bulb? It does not change. Borderline is characterised by an extreme neediness and urges to harm oneself, often including thoughts of suicide. Someone who is suffering from Borderline personality disorder may experience some of the following: lack of sense in oneself, outburst of anger and violence, and suicidal threat and acts of self harm. Borderline personality disorder can have an affect on a person’s life with the constant fear of being abandoned and even suicidal behavior.
Based on attachment theory, Kobak and Sceery (1 988) postulated that one’s history of regulating distress (i.e., coping) with childhood attachment figures will also carry over into adulthood. Infant separations from the attachment figure (mother) can be viewed as the first experience of coping with stress. If the childhood attachment figure has been responsive (secure), then distress can be regulated with active seeking of comfort and support if the attachment figures are not always responsive (anxious/ambivalent, avoidant), then other ways of coping must be used. Secure individuals because of their positive attachment history, effectively regulates negative affect; they acknowledge distress and turn to others for support in times of need. Insecure individuals (avoidant.
The Biopsychological Approach is the concept that psychological and social factors play a part in understanding an individual’s mental illness or disorder. Aggression is a human behavior which many display, but if it is gone unnoticed it can worsen overtime. This essay will explain the Biological, psychological, and social factors explaining an individual’s human behavior. When referring to the biological factors of the biopsychological approach, we can focus on research that proves guys are often proven to be more aggressive than girls. Growing up boys are more physical than girls.
History Dissociative identity disorder (DID), originally referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) was first identified in 1815. Throughout the 19th century several prominent figures in psychology studied MPD, including Jung and Freud (Ellason & Ross, 1995). The term dissociative was established in the late 1800s by Pierre Janet, a French psychologist. Janet described the term dissociative as a state in which an individual’s personality is split into several inaccessible pieces (Joel, 2012). Less than a decade later Morton Prince, an American psychologist, utilized this term to describe a patient who appeared to have multiple personalities (Joel, 2012).
It often disrupts family and work life, long-term planning and the sense of identity. (Psychology Today, 2017). The “borderline” means that it is between neurotic and psychosis. Some causes of having BPD are related to environmental and genetic factors. Studies show that individuals that suffer from BPD report a history of abuse, neglect or separation as a young child.
The representation of psychological disorders is observed in the character of Joan Crawford. A psychological disorder, as defined by Myers (2008), is a “significant dysfunction in an individual’s cognitions, emotions, and behaviors. For example, Joan carries a few psychological disorders including borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. First and foremost, when waking up one morning, Joan obsessively washes her hands, face, and arms before she even gets into the shower. She also became upset with her maid when she missed a spot of dirt under the plant, along with forcefully making Christina clean the already clean bathroom floor.
ii. The area in the brain called the insula, the part that helps determine how intensely we experience negative emotions is extremely in people with BPD. However, regions
The study of this mental disorder includes trying to understand the biological, genetic, psychological and environmental causes. DSM-5 Criteria for BPD has a persuasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning early in adulthood and present in a variety of contexts (Butcher, J., 16 ed., p. 342). Given the many and the various symptoms that Borderline Personality Disorder holds, not surprisingly, this disorder produces significant impairment in social, occupational, emotional, and academic functioning (Bagge et al., 2004; Grant et al.,
Case Profile and Summary of Eve White from the film, The Three Faces of Eve Following is a case profiling and summary of Eve White (Joanne Woodward), the main character of the movie “The Three Faces of Eve” directed by Nunnally Johnson in 1957. Client Presentation Eve white is a young housewife married to Mr. Ralph and had a daughter named Bonnie. She’s Christian and lives in Georgia in a nuclear family. Although she’s bound in an unhappy married life but she has been living a normal and peaceful life until her illness. She’s a house wife and a loving mother.
Psychological disorders have always been around in society; however, it was until just recently when we started learning more about them and what effects they have on an individual. There are several types of psychological disorders we have among our human population. To be diagnosed with any form of disorder, abnormal behavior has to be shown. According to King (2007, p. 441), “Abnormal behavior is deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful over a relatively long period of time. Only one of these criteria needs to be present for a behavior to be labeled “abnormal,” but typically two or all three are present.”
Emotional abuse and sexual trauma have been linked to both borderline personality disorder and some instances of obsessive-compulsive disorder. 5. How do one's peers play a role in personality? Peers are yet another aspect of a person’s life that can positively offset all of the negativity that could be occurring in a child’s life.
The parental neglect The mother is strongly influenced by her own father. She was raised the same way by her father. She believed that raising a child is just providing a place to sleep and provide food. One can clearly see the evidence based on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development (Bukato & Daehler, 1995), with the mother’s poor cognitive development, Carol did not acquire an opportunity to experience and understand the world. Carol did not have the opportunity to assimilate and accommodate equilibrium.