Borobudur: The Sailendra Era

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Borobudur, the largest Buddhist structure in the world built by the Sailendra dynasty

The Sailendra dynasty leaders had further maintained close relations, including marriage alliances with the Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra. The mutual association between the two kingdoms ensured that Srivijaya had no need to fear the emergence of a Javanese rival kingdoms and that the Sailendra had access to the international market for trading.
The Sailendra period was characterized by peaceful co-existence and cooperation but towards the middle of the 9th century relations had deteriorated. Around 852 the Sanjaya ruler of Pikatan had defeated Balaputra, the brother of the Sailendra monarch Samaratunga and princess Tara. This ended the Sailendra presence
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He is was destined to be the founder of the great empire after the Mongol’s unsuccessful conquest. The Majapahit empire became the greatest ever of all the states in insular Southeast Asia, claiming political control over the most of the archipelago. Gajah Mada, the patih (prime minister) was the most remarkable figure in Indonesian history before the Dutch conquest. He united the archipelago through direct conquest. It extended over to Champa, Thailand and Cambodia. The period marked the golden age of the Javanese history, known as literary and cultural…show more content…
On September 20, 1519. Spanish fleet under the Portugese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reached the island of Samar on March 17, 1521, on the next day, they reached Homonhon. They reached the island of Masaua on March 28, 1521 where the first Christian mass in the Philippines was celebrated on March 31, 1521. Magellan explored further and arrived at Cebu island on April 7, 1521, befriending Rajah Humabon, and converting his family, and other nearby islanders to Christianity.However, Magellan would later be killed in the Battle of Mactan by native warriors led by Rajah Lapu-Lapu, a rival of Rajah Humabon.
When Philip II of Spain ordered series of expeditions to the islands, it was the beginning of western colonization. Miguel López de Legazpi successfully arrived from Mexico in 1565, and formed the first Spanish settlements in Cebu. In 1571 he established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East

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