Botulinum Toxin Case Study Solution

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The neurotoxins produced by the Clostridia species are among the most potent toxins

known. Botulinum toxin, BoNT, is a poisonous substance produced within living cells by

Clostridium Botulinum bacteria. Botulism poisoning results most frequently from the ingestion

of contaminated food. Food must be cooked for a sufficient length of time, at 248 °F, for the

heat resistant spores to die. Botulism also may result from a wound infection or enter the body v

via the pulmonary tract, inhalational botulism (Dembek 339). May notes young infants, less

then 6 months old, are more susceptible to infant botulism because their intestines are immature

and gastrointestinal tract is incapable of combatting potential spores that
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Botulinum toxin, BoNT-A injections, along with rehabilitation therapies, have become an integral part in the management of muscle spasticity resulting from a stroke, hemiparesis, cerebral palsy and other debilitating diseases (May 44). Dr. Paul Janda stated the dosage amount for each patient is determined on the size, number and location of muscles involved, severity of spasticity, the presence of local muscle weakness, and the patient 's response to previous treatment. The affected spastic muscles are injected, blocking neuromuscular transmission inhibiting further muscular contractions. improving muscle tone Neurologists use an EMG, electromyography, that monitors the electrical activity of muscles; the BoNT-A injections are given to that specific muscle, either upper and lower extremities or both. Repeat treatment may be administered, but generally, no sooner than 12 weeks after the previous injection. The degree and pattern of muscle spasticity at the time of re-injection may necessitate alterations in the dose of BoNT-A and muscles to be injected (Janda) The goals of spasticity management

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