Botulinum Toxin Therapy Research Paper

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Botulinum Toxin Therapy
Botulinum toxin is produced by anerobic bacillus Colstidium botulinum, is a potent neurotoxin. That is inhibits the presynaptic release of acetylcholine and binds to acetylcholine receptors at the postsynaptic membrane.(122 B) There are seven distinct serotypes of Botulinum toxin : A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G. Only Botulinum toxins type A and B are commercially available. Four types of botulinum toxin are approved by FDA for clinical use in the USA.
1. Onabotulinumtoxin A (A/Ona,Botox)
2. Incobotulinumtoxin A (A/Inco,Xeomin)
3. Abobotolinumtoxin A (A/Abo,Dysport)
4. Rimabotuliniumtoxin B (B/Rima, Myobloc)

Botulinum toxin is a single-chain protein that is inactive until cleaved by its own proteases into one heavy and
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Care should be taken to inject into the deep dermis, since subcutaneous injections increase the probability that the drug will diffuse into the intrinsic muscles of the hand, resulting in hand weakness. Many patients will experience some degree of hand weakness that begins 1-3 days after treatment and persists for approximately 2 weeks following treatment.[94.156] For dentists, surgeons, musicians, and other professionals who rely on the use of their hands, two options exist to minimize the impact of hand weakness on daily functioning. Firs, treatment may be staggered, such that each hand is treated on separate visits, with touch-up injections in the other hand, if necessary. Alternatively, treatment may be initiated at a low dose in both hands simultaneously during the first visit. Patients should be given a choice regarding which treatment schedule they prefer after being informed about the implications associated with the available…show more content…
If injections are meticulously placed high into the dermis, deep penetration of BTX-A to a point where it affects intrinsic of transient weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles following BTX treatment, clinicians should counsel patients regarding the potential consequences and dangers of poor fine motor

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