The researcher tried to decrease the dosage of the medicine (co-trimoxazole) that is being used to prove that the medication or the treatment of pneumonia to the children between 24 months old and 59 months old. There are different results that was gathered after giving the ill children the decreased dosage co-trimoxazole, the first and second result of the placebo trial was proven effective but reducing again the dosage of the medicine on the third attempt resulted to 22.9% failure. Despite of the failure, researchers continue to relapse the study and eventually the last few trials of the placebo effect was proven effective. In this case, out of 1200 respondent, 87 still suffers from fast breathing or “pneumonia”, 4 were suffering from chest drawing which is also called in medical as “severe pneumonia”, 4 had lethargy or “very severe pneumonia” and 7 are still taking the prescribed antibiotic treatment. (Lupisan et al.,
Introduction: Intussusception is a common gastrointestinal emergency in the pediatric population. This illness is a conversion in which a portion of the intestine telescopes into another adjacent distal segment of the intestine and causes bowel and ileocolic obstruction. Intussusception is considered a frequent cause of abdominal pain in pediatric patients. It is well described in infants, with an incidence of 0.1 to 0.4 % nonetheless it is less well-established in neonates.1, 2 In fewer than 10% of the patients, a surgical lead point can be determined as a plausible etiology. Cecal duplication as a lead-point of neonatal intussusception is extremely rare.
Neonatal care has greatly improved in recent years and it has become possible for very low birth weight or asphyxiated newborns to survive. Until a few years ago, many of these babies inevitably died early. Now we can prolong their life, but with handicaps in many cases. A recent debate centred on whether it is ethical to withhold or withdraw therapy, sometimes in an active way, allowing newborns, presumed unable to lead a normal life, to die. 1,2,3,4,5,6 Attitudes on this ethical question in neonatal intensive care units of four Western countries,7 France,8 The Netherlands,9 and other states10 have been published.
In older infants and children, the latent tuberculosis infection usually does not exhibit any symptoms. Children infected with TB may develop immunity within 6 to 10 weeks of infection. However, some cases in children can lead to progressive tuberculosis, a form of TB that spread outside the lungs. The reactivation tuberculosis is a condition wherein the bacteria lie dormant and wait for a favorable situation, such as a compromised immune system. Treatment for tuberculosis is composed of multiple medications that disrupt the mycolic acids in the bacteria’s cell wall and inhibit mechanisms for
This research highlights outcomes of adolescent depression screening among teenagers accessing pediatric primary care clinic services with the implementation of the PHQ-9 screening tool. The study occurred over a four-month period and demonstrated that approximately 83% of the 144 adolescents involved indicated a PHQ-9 score showing a need for referral for further evaluation and treatment of depression. The study shows how routine screening can promote early intervention and treatment allowing for better outcomes. The research will help this current study by showing the impact of screening on the management of the condition. This Review provides evidence-based treatment interventions for depression in children and adolescents between the
Obstructive uropathy occurs rather frequently (1 in 1000 live births). Prenatal intervention with vescioamniotic shunts is used to bypass or directly treat the obstruction to restore the amniotic fluid to normal levels. Amniotic band syndrome may result in amputations, constrictions and postural deformities secondary to immobilization. This abnormality is caused by the early rupture of the amnion and mesodermic bands originating from the chorionic side of the amnion and inserting on the fetal body. Some incidences of this disease may be fixed by
Gender wise, female to male ratio is approximately 2:1. Female gender affected more frequently and it is already observable before the age of 14years old. The prevalence rate of panic disorder is low at the age before 14 years old(<0.4%). It gradually increases during adolescence and reaches its peak during adulthood, particularly in female. It declines during elderly (0.7% for age >64years old).
I would like to mention one of Sub-Saharan country Kenya: In Kenya infant mortality declined- first contributing a rise in life expectancy at birth from about 42 years in the early 1950s to 56 years. In the late 1970s before fertility began a decline from then-prevalent eight children per woman. In the early 1950s, Pakistan had a life expectancy of 41 years and an average and an average fertility rate of 6.6 children per woman. Early 1980s life expectancy has reached 59 years due in large parts to reduction in infants and child deaths. There are many factors which made life expectancy gap in developing and developing countries, poor
Early cord clamping is carried out in the first sixty seconds post-delivery. Late cord clamping is carried out after more than one minute post-delivery or when cord pulsation has ceased. Their objectives were to determine whether different policies on the timing of cord clamping at delivery affects maternal and neonatal outcomes. Eleven randomised controlled trials were undertaken on 2,989 expectant mothers and their babies. McDonald and Middleton independently assessed the eligibility and quality of these trials and extracted the
Preterm birth, defined as childbirth occurring at less than 37 weeks or 259 days of gestation, is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity and has long-term antithetical consequences for health.1-3 Children who are born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, sensory deficits, learning disabilities and respiratory illnesses compared with children born full term. The morbidity related with preterm birth often extends to later life, resulting in enormous physical, psychological and economic costs.4, 5 Preterm children are at greater risk of motor impairments and these impairments often persist into adolescence. Premature infants comprise a special group of high-risk infants. Their motor development is distinct from that of healthy full - term infants and their occurrence of motor disorders is higher than their incidence of recognition and behavioral disorders.6 About 10 – 20% of all pregnancies and 9% of neonates are at risk7. According to international studies, 2.6 – 10% of neonates with birth weight of <1500 g).