Recto perineal fistula: The operation to repair this defect is performed at birth in order to avoid cosmetic, psychological and potential obstetric consequences in the future. This operation is done before the baby leaves the hospital during the newborn period. The patient is placed in prone position with the pelvis elevated. Multiple 6/0 silk stitches are placed around the fistula site. The incision is about 1.5–2 cm long and divides the entire sphincter mechanism in the posterior midline.
Given this child’s age and greater than 50% of the femoral head is involved as determined by the radiograph, his outcome is poor and treatment is more similar to adult femoral head osteonecrosis (Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, n.d.). Surgical treatment options for his age may include femoral and pelvic osteotomies; however a perfusion MRI should be performed to assess the extent of femoral head involvement (Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children,
There are changes in the T-wave and in the ST segment of the fetal ECG due to a worsening fetal hypoxia. Hence these parameters can be assessed to diagnose a hypoxaemic fetus. A mature fetus exposed to hypoxemia develops an elevated ST segment with a progressive rise in T-wave height that is expressed as T:QRS ratio. An increasing T:QRS ratio indicates fetal cardiac ability to adapt to hypoxia. When hypoxia worsens, it results in an increasingly negative ST-segment deflection such that it appears as a biphasic waveform25.
In the examples of catheterization witnessed in the hospital, those three patients were placed at risk for the development of infection. The nursing intervention of catheterization if done improperly can impair the patient. Jan Powers states urinary tract infections account for 30% of hospital infections, and of the 30%, 70-80% are related to urinary catheters (Impact of an aseptic procedure). The four nursing literature pieces used consult three main factors in preventing complications related to urinary catheterization. The first factor is the duration of how long the catheter will remain in the patient.
Pain less delivry (to be answered by gynecologist) Q how can I have a pain less delivery? Ans Epidural anesthesia allow mother to have pain less delivery in a natural way. It involves placement of a very fine tube thriught an injection in the lower beck. Drug can be injected at regular interwals through this arrangment we can make the patient comfurtable. Q does pain less delivery has any complications?
You might be wondering, how would I know if it’s time to change the size of my child’s diaper? If the diaper is permanently leaking and has blowout, this is the first sign that it’s time to move up one size. Another sign to watch out for is if the diaper appears to be too tight while your baby is wearing it or if there are red marks caused by the elasticity on the legs and tummy of your baby. You can choose between diaper sizes one to six. Choosing the size of your baby’s diaper can be easy due to the size chart on the diaper’s packaging, but you have to be aware if the diaper is an improper fit.
The most common organs involved are the uterus (uterine prolapse), the bladder (cystocele), anterior rectal wall (rectocele), and small bowel (enterocele). These organs prolapse out of their normal position and shift into or expel out of the vaginal canal. A prolapse can occur if an individual 's lower pelvic floor muscles are weakened and damaged from excessive pressure and stretching, which can be caused by prolonged and vaginal childbirth, surgery, advancing age, chronic constipation, cancer, and even obesity. Additionally, postmenopausal women have an increased risk of pelvic organ prolapse due to the decreased production of estrogen, which is an essential component in manufacturing collagen. Therefore, a decrease in estrogen is associated with a decrease in collagen, which normally enables the supporting tissues and ligaments in the pelvic cavity to stretch and return to their normal size and position.
A normal implantation occurs in the endometrial lining of the uterine cavity. Implantation anywhere else is an ectopic pregnancy. There are mechanical and functional factors that lead to an ectopic pregnancy. The mechanical factors such as tubal corrective surgery, tubal sterilization, previous ectopic pregnancy and documented tubal pathology those factors are been classified as high risk factors. The moderate risks, are infertility, previous genital infection, and multiple partners.
There are five important factors that can be done to make sure to develop a healthy baby. Avoid stress and toxoplasmosis during pregnancy; and after birth and during the first year of life, APGAR (universal precautions), breastfeeding, and communication are very essential to your infant. To achieve best baby development is to avoid stress. It is common for mothers to feel stress during pregnancy because your body is going through a lot changes such as emotional and hormones changes, but having too much stress can trigger the chances of having a preterm labor or low birth weight infant. Reducing the stress level is very important for preventing
It is also used to know the age of the fetus, the gender, the position of the fetus, to check for problems regarding the baby, and to know the cause of vaginal bleeding. The last type of ultrasound is abdominal ultrasound. Abdominal ultrasound is used to detect diseases or problems within the organs inside the abdomen such as lover, bile ducts, pancreas, and gall
Fractured Clavicle Occurs in during difficult birth due to unequal movement of the upper extremities Abdomen: Normal Finding A. Shape Round, dome shaped and nondistended B. Umbilical Cord Two arteries, one vein, whitish gray color, odorless C. Bowel sounds Present 1-2 hours after birth Abnormal Abdomen: Definition A. Distension: Fullness of the abdomen above the umbilicus caused by ruptured viscus or tumors. B. Imperforate Anus Blockage of the anus or missing of the anus C. Meconium Ileus Bowel obstruction caused by thick abnormal meconium Genitalia: (complete female and male) Normal finding or Definition A. Female (labia, clitoris, meatus, edema, pseudo-menstruation) 2pts Labia majora covers the labia minora and clitoris and are usually edematous Meatus is beneath the clitoris, difficult to see due to the edema A hymenal tag should be present Pseudo-menstruation, a blood tinged discharge caused by pregnancy hormones is common B. Male penis, scrotum, rugae, phimosis, testes circumcision, edema) 2pts Foreskin covers glans the meatus is at tip of penis and not retractable If circumcised the prepuce is removed Scrotum is covered in rugae and its large edematous and hangs low C. Anus Patent and not covered by a