Since the ‘50s, Bowlby worked alone and with distinguished colleagues such as psychoanalyst James Robertson, ethologist/zoologist Robert Hinde and psychologist Mary Ainsworth on several different studies. Bowlby suggested that due to the attachment between children and their carers, children suffer loss when they are separated. Bowlby’s study with the ethologist Robert Hinde, inspired the idea that certain attachment behaviours have evolved as a survival mechanism (Bergen, 2008). The core of the theory today is that the quality of close relationships affects personality, emotional and social development not only in childhood but throughout the life of the individual (Howe, 2001). This suggests that attachment theory is effectively a biological, psychological and social theory of human development.
These were the first representations of Bowlby’s attachment theory. In his first paper, Bowlby reviewed Freud’s (1950-1953) notion that mature human sexuality is built up of component instincts. These instinctual responses carry the function of binding the infant to the mother, and the mother to the infant. These responses including sucking clinging and signalling behaviours like smiling and crying all develop independently during the infants first year of life, and become more and more integrated during the second half of year one. Separation Anxiety (Bowlby, 1959), his second paper, continues the observations by Robertson (1953).
Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development. Although, at first Freud was limited to childhood based on the phallic stage, Erikson focused on developing a lifespan theory. The eight stages are as followed: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy): The basic and fundamental psychological task is for infants to develop a sense that their needs will be met by the outside world. Is their caregiver responsive, reliable, and willing to meet their needs? That basic trust is facilitated by a responsive caregiver once an infant gets hungry, injured, or needs to be changed.
Love involves the integration of cognitions, emotions and behaviours that play an important role in intimate relationships (Coon & Mitterer, 2012). Love consists of three components; intimacy, passion and decision/commitment (Sternberg, 1986). The Attachment Theory illustrates how the kind of relationship one had with their parents in early childhood affects adult romantic attachment, this assumption is based on the fact that all children are emotionally and physically attached to the people who take care of them. The differences in the way certain individuals become
Attachment Theory Overview of Attachment Theory Attachment theory tries to describe the evolution of personality and behaviour in relationships and it gives a reason for the difference in a person’s emotional and relationship attitudes. In the beginning, it looked at the mechanics of relationships between children and their parents but it has since been expanded to cover the entire life of the human being. Attachment theory includes insights learned from evolutionary theory, ethology, systems theory and developmental psychology. Attachment theory is often described as a psychosocial theory as it explores the human experience which is formed by the interaction between the psychology of the individual and the social environment. It is worth noting that as with many theories on the individual, attachment theory does not try to explain, nor is it able to, cover the entire complexity of human development or interaction.
We consider the child's characteristics (being British, being a girl, birthweight, whether s/he was breastfed for at least 1 month, accidents at home, having been in a hospital, and three indicators of child development1); household's characteristics (other siblings, weekly equivalent income, if parents meet friends at least once a week, region of residence); mother's characteristics (age, hours of work per week, whether she held a job while pregnant, monthly wage, not employed, whether she experienced post–partum depression, a factor summarizing her feelings of tiredness and concern, a factor summarizing her feelings of irritability, whether she had lived with a single mother during childhood, whether she has a chronic illness, cigarettes smoked per day, whether she drinks at least once a week); father's characteristics (whether he is present, hours of work per week, monthly wage, a factor summarizing his feelings of tiredness and concern, a factor summarizing his feelings of irritability, whether he had lived with a single mother during childhood, cigarettes smoked per day, whether he drinks at least once a
The face to face model has been used in many studies to indicate the effects of maternal depression on the child. During this study the infant endures three interactive contexts, firstly the mother would play and interact with the infant then researchers instructed the mothers to pretend that they were depressed. The mothers would be' still faced' and not smile, touch, or talk to the infant and finally the mother would resume playing and interacting with the infant. During the second stage of the study when the mother was 'still faced' it took the infants three minutes to become distressed due to the way in which the mother was acting. The infants would try to interact and engage with the mother by smiling or crying.
Besides what the women and the couple goes through during the dissolution of marriage, most studied all so report a major impact on children and parent child relationships. These relationships are predictive of immediate as well as long term psychological as well as behavioral adjustment of children (Amato, 1993). Study by Cooney found that children’s feelings about a specific parent were strongly correlated with the contact the child had with that parent, this suggest that family relationships might become more of a voluntary choice after divorce. Therefore, the time as and the quality of the relationship as well as the frequency of the contact the child had with a given parent is by choice, there for the relationship that the child had with the parent is also by choice. A meta-analysis that studied 92 studies, compared children who were living with a single parent who was against
Temporary homes can be really destructive for a child. Children are mostly placed in temporary homes when they are waiting to be adopted. The child then starts really bonding with the family, just to be ripped out and placed into a new temporary family. This process can happen several times, until the child is adopted. I have personal experience with this, as my sister is adopted.
CCIB received a SCAR/CPS referral #0306-4829-5973-3020047. The reporting party (RP) Ashley Shinn reports her son, Aedan Shinn (DOB: 01/10/12), attends the Reyes family Day Care Monday thru Friday. RP reports a couple of months ago, her son attempted to tell her how the licensee disciplines the children when they are not asleep during their nap time. RP states Aedan at first was going to tell her, but then said he would get in trouble for being bad. As recently as yesterday, Aedan finally disclosed to the RP that licensee when checking in on the children taking a nap and notices the children not sleep with their eyes closed she will hit them on top of the head with a closed fist.
Anisworth developed a technique called the “strange situation” (Levy & Blatt 1999). Through this, Ainsworth was able to categorize infants with considerable reliability into three distinct groups (Secure, avoidant and anxious-ambivalent) based on their reunion behaviour with their mothers after their brief separation. She explains that the avoidant is characterized by a quiet distance in the mother’s presence, acting unaware of the mother’s departure, and avoiding the mother upon reunion (Levy & Blatt
Tammy’s pattern of caretaking is compared to the typical Mayan and American pattern of caretaking. Also, links are found between sleeping and feeding arrangements and some aspect of Tammy’s background or culture, and the article’s argument about arrangements, routines, and transitional objects are analyzed. The American typical pattern of caretaking is that parents do not sleep with their infants daily. Instead, the newborn infant may sleep near the parents’ bed in a crib. After a few months, the parents may move the baby into a different room as soon as possible to teach the baby how to be more independent.