Attachment in early life is a fundamental aspect of child development and the establishment of intimate and reciprocal relationships with caregivers. Shaffer & Kipp (2007) define attachment as ‘a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity’. Contrary to the original view of infant attachment as a ‘secondary drive’ of the dependency on caregivers for physiological needs, such as hunger; Bowlby (1969, 1973) proposed that all infants are born with an innate bias to form an attachment to a primary attachment figure to whom they can seek comfort, or a ‘secure base’ during stressful circumstances. It is proposed by Ainsworth (1967) that parental sensitivity is crucial to shaping the security and development of the initial infant-parent attachment relationship, however the phenomenon of attachment requires both infants and caregivers to contribute in the formation of the attachment bond. Ultimately, the quality of attachment in early life shapes both the social and emotional
Attachment is an emotional bond between an infant and their primary caregiver (usually the mother). The interactions between the caregiver and the infant are seen as important parts which help their relationship to develop and to maintain the attachment, (Psychology Today, 2017). This emotional bond is a strong feeling that a person (infant) have for another person (caregiver) and it could be vital for a child`s normal behaviour and social development. John Bowlby studied and expanded the concept of attachment and came to the conclusion that attachment represents in the early years of life, a behavioural system which its goal is to maintain the closeness of primary caregiver with the infant. He argues that emotional connections between a child
Attachment theory suggests it is the quality of the relationship between the child and caregiver, which ultimately influences development (Sroufe & Seigel, 2011). Ideally, the child and caregiver should express attunement to one another (Sroufe & Seigel, 2011). Ainsworth’s Strange Situation experiment differentiated the securely attached child from the insecure child through the child’s reaction to the return of her caregiver after periods of separation (Sroufe & Seigel, 2011). The securely attached child “actively greet(s) and initiate(s) interaction with the caregiver upon reunion” (Sroufe & Seigel, 2011, p. 4). The securely attached child develops a positive “internal working model” (Schore & Schore, 2008, p. 12), influencing self-efficacy.
The attachment is shown by some behaviors in infants, such as needing closeness with the attachment figure when upset or threatened, the infant uses the figure as secure base that the child can use when in need of security and comfort (Bowlby, 1969). Any caregiver is the attachment figure who provides most care for the infant and is their primary social communication.This can be biological parents or anyone who the infant feels the attachment with. According to Bowlby there are 4 stages in attachment formation: Pre-attachment, attachment-in-the-making, clear-cut
A positive approach should always be taken when discussing what is happening to allow a child to talk about their feelings towards the move and to ask any questions if they feel it necessary. This allows the practitioner to address any concerns the child may have early on the reduce their anxiety or worry. Communicating with the parents about the worries a child has is important as they can then be addressed both in the setting and at home to make sure they are eradicated before the transition begins. Theories of attachment John Bowlby: stated that a child is influenced mostly by their primary carer, usually the mother. He said
The caregiver is readily available and responsive to the infant’s needs and emotions. When an infant develop trust in the availability and reliability of this relationship. The internal working models for the infants is likely to be one their anxiety is reduced and they can therefore explore and enjoy their world, safe in the knowledge that they can return to their secure base for help if needed and can emotionally regulate oneself. The child grows up to be confident, less disruptive and aggressive than the other groups, able to form long lasting relationships and have
Depending on the style of attachment, behaviour would be understood and even predicted. Generically Ainsworth classification of attachment styles described infant-caregiver relationships as either secure or insecure; insecure attachment can be further subdivided into either an avoidant/resistant patterns depending on the particular pattern of behaviour displayed by the infant. For individual attachment patterns there is a corresponding caregiving style. The secure type is when an infant seeks protection or comfort from their mother and receives care consistently. The mother is usually found to be loving and affectionate, educating a child to cope with problems in the future.
The attachment theory specifies that an infants and young child requires consistent relationships with people to thrive and develop. Attachment is described as a essential need with a biological basis where infants or young children need to maintain a sense of security with a specific person. Developing a secure attachment between the infant and their parents or guardian is an important part of early childhood development, due to the many things that can interfere with the development of a healthy attachment. Without a secure attachment, an infant may develop problems that can continue throughout their lives and affect the relationships with others. Approach behavior may be defined as locomotion in which a usual outcome of the distance between one person and one other specific person is observed to distinguish the distance between each individual and the attachment to one another.
His theory is based on the innate relationship that customarily grows between a mother and her newborn. He believed the quality of the time the caregiver commits to the infant and the more sensitive they are to the child’s needs the better a child’s positive expectations of self and others will evolve. This, in turn, will lead the child to have a healthier emotional, mental, and social development
These types of visitation arrangements for infants often work best if you work with the custodial parent to keep your baby's routine the same. This type of visitation also works well if the other parent is okay with you spending time with the infant at their home or at the infant's childcare. This is a great alternative to overnight visits for infant children, and work best when both parents respect each other and are able to spend time with each other. The court system wants to do what is in the best interest in your child, and generally recognizes that infants bond different than older children. Most courts recognize that infants need lots of physical contact in order to bond and become familiar with adults.
It would make it easy for the children and foster parents to connect. They need to prioritize kinship care and make foster homes a last resort. This will allow children to remain in a comfortable environment. At least in kinship care, they are placed under the care of someone they already know and are comfortable with. This makes their transition
Supporting a child’s healthy social and emotional growth takes commitment from all primary caregivers involved in the child’s life: mothers, fathers, grandparents, child care providers and other key adults. Young children observe caregivers’ relationships, and this shapes their expectations for how people treat each other. Young children attain social emotional competence when adults have positive interactions with infants and toddlers in their care. Repeated interactions lead to predictable relationships, because the infant or young child begins to know how the caregiver will respond to him or her. This pattern of responses creates the emotional connection the child has to the caregiver.
By using treatment methods like dyadic developmental therapy, integrative play therapy, and parent skills training are all credible techniques to help build trust and attachment. These therapy treatments aim and encourage caregivers to provide a consistent and stable attachment with the child while providing a positive and stimulating interactive