Brain Cancer Case Studies

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KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
UMM ALQURA UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES
NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

BRAIN CANCER

Prepared by:
EYAD KAMEL KHODARI
Academic No: 43210152
Presented to:

DR. ABDULLAH ALTHUBIANI
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Subject Page
Literature review 3
Signs and symptoms 6
Alarme signal Possible cause 4
Anatomy 6
Spinal cord and other tissues 8
Imaging 9
Pathology 10
Classification 12
Anaphase 14
Treatment 15
Surgery 16
Radiation therapy 17
Chemotherapy 18
Prognosis 19
Epidemiology 20
Conclusion 21
References 22 BRAIN CANCER:
Literature review:
Introduction:
Brain cancer, or tumor, is an intracranial solid neoplasm, a tumor (defined as an abnormal
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Anaplastic cells display marked pleomorphism. The cell nuclei are characteristically extremely hyperchromatic (darkly stained) and enlarged; the nucleus might have the same size as the cytoplasm of the cell (nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio may approach 1:1, instead of the normal 1:4 or 1:6 ratio). Giant cells considerably larger than their neighbors may form and possess either one enormous nucleus or several nuclei (sanction). Anaplastic nuclei are variable and bizarre in size and shape. invasion or invasion or invasiveness is the spatial expansion of the tumor through uncontrolled mitosis, in the sense that the neoplasm invades the space occupied by adjacent tissue, thereby pushing the other tissue aside and eventually compressing the tissue. Often these tumors are associated with clearly outlined tumors in imaging.
Infiltration is the behavior of the tumor either to grow (microscopic) tentacles that push into the surrounding tissue (often making the outline of the tumor undefined or diffuse) or to have tumor cells "seeded" into the tissue beyond the circumference of the timorous mass; this does not mean that an infiltrative tumor does not take up space or does not compress the surrounding tissue as it grows, but an infiltrating neoplasm makes it difficult to say where the tumor ends and the healthy tissue
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Even when aggressive multimodality therapy consisting of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgical excision is used, median survival is only 12–17 months. Standard therapy for glioblastoma multiforme consists of maximal surgical resection of the tumor, followed by radiotherapy between two and four weeks after the surgical procedure to remove the cancer, then by chemotherapy. Most patients with glioblastoma take a corticosteroid, typically dexamethasone, during their illness to palliate symptoms. Experimental treatments include gamma-knife radio surgery, boron neutron capture therapy and gene transfer. (4)
Oligodendrogliomas:-
Oligodendroglioma is an incurable but slowly progressive malignant brain tumor. They can be treated with surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. For suspected low-grade oligodendrogliomas in select patients, some neuron-oncologists opt for a course of watchful waiting, with only symptomatic therapy. Tumors with the 1p/19q co-deletion have been found to be especially chemo sensitive, and one source reports oligodendrogliomas to be "among the most chemosensitive of human solid malignancies". A median survival of up to 16.7 years has been reported for low grade oligodendrogliomas. (5)

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