The mitral valve is also reconstructed during surgery either by repairing it or, if needed, replacing it so that the valve will close tightly enough to regulate the blood flow. However, during a complete atrioventricular septal defect repair, the doctor will also divide the single mitral valve into two separate valves, with one each on the left and right sides of the repaired septum. If dividing the mitral valve is not possible for the procedure, then a heart valve replacement would be needed to proceed. The anatomical system that is affected by this procedure is the cardiovascular system. The operation is performed in the chest cavity on the heart, with the septum and valves being reconstructed or replaced.
Cytotoxic edema is most commonly characterized by the swelling of neurons, glia and constriction of extracellular space. Cytotoxic causes of edema include: traumatic brain injury, encephalitis, meningitis, toxic ingestions and hypoxic ischemic brain injury. The final
This results in the damage of brain cells and including the cells beyond the spill which then, aren’t able receive enough blood. Common causes of this type of hemorrhage are hypertension, trauma, and the use of blood thinners. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when an artery within the surface of the brain bursts and spills in the space between the surface of the brain and skull. The leakage is most commonly caused by an aneurysm. A transient ischemic attack is also known as TIA or “mini stroke”.
In lateral canal stenosis as there is involvement of the nerve it results in severe radiculopathy, with muscle weakness, pain and immobility. This results from a series of changes in the components of the central and lateral canal such as ligamentum flavum inflammation, bony spurs, epidural fat deposition and facetal hypertrophy. (1) Management of spinal stenosis includes conservative or surgical treatment. Conservative approach comprises of rest, analgesics, anti inflammatory medications, physical exercises, and weight loss. Surgery is done in patients who have severe pain, disability, neuropathy or malignancy.
Researchers believe that multiple blows to the head may dislodge the tau protein from the cell structure and cause it to form in clumps inside nerve cells. This may damage or ultimately kill nerve cells, and spread as the disease progresses; one of the advanced stages is that brain shrinkage may occur. Researchers are working to refine brain scan techniques to identify Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy tau deposits in living brains. They are also looking for clues in people’s blood or cerebrospinal fluid that would allow them diagnose the disease before death. A large-scale study found that concussions in adolescents can increase the risk of developing multiple sclerosis later on in life.
Rheumatic Heart Disease 5. Congestive Cardiac Failure Keywords: Congenital, heart disease, cyanosis, oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood, structural defects, systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, Mottling, Pallor, Pulmonary Rales 1. CYANOTIC CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES (CCHD) CCHD is a group of congenital heart diseases that occur due to deoxygenated blood bypassing the lungs and entering the systemic circulation or a mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood entering systemic circulation which is caused by structural defects of the heart or any condition which increases pulmonary vascular
With this type of Dementia, the symptoms can be very different due to how badly the blood vessel are damaged after having the stroke. ii. In the scholarly article, Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer Disease, written by Phillip B Gorelick and publish in October 2004. It mentions that Vascular Dementia have terrible effects on the brain and your cognitive abilities. iii.
Zagazig University Faculty of Medicine Department of Anesthesiology and Surgical Critical Care Predictive value of combining Middle Cerebral Artery Pulsatile Index and Glasgow Coma Scale on outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients in Zagazig University Hospital Protocol of thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of MD degree in Anesthesiology and Surgical Critical Care By Dr. Naglaa Fathy Abdelhaleem Abdelhaleem (M.B.B.Ch, M.Sc.) Under supervision of Faculty of Medicine Zagazig University -2015- 1. Introduction Traumatic brain injury (TBI), defined as an alteration in brain functions caused by an external force, is responsible for high morbidity and mortality around the world. It is important to identify and treat TBI victims as early as possible, Reis et al. (2015).
INTRODUCTION Keratoconjunctivitis sicca commonly known as dry eye disease is defined as a multifactor disease that affect the tears and surface of the eye which yields to discomfort, disturbances in vision and unstable tear film that causes tremendous damage to the surface of the eye, followed by increment in the osmolarity of the tear film and inflammation on the ocular structures involved . Physiologically the tear film is made up of a lipid, aqueous and mucin layer. The lipid layer is produced by meibomian and other glands; aqueous layer is secreted by lacrimal gland, accessory gland, conjunctival and corneal epithelium; and mucin layer is produced by the goblet cells of the conjunctiva. These structures are the main targets for dry-eye
Seizure (Epilepsy) is a cluster of behaviors (altered consciousness, characteristic motor patterns) that occurs in response to abnormal neurochemical activity in the brain. The normal pattern of the neuronal activity becomes disturbed, causing unusual sensations, emotions, behavior, convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness. There are several types of seizures and can be caused by many different things or sometimes they just happen. One of the seizures is tonic/clonic seizures or grand mal seizures. This seizure affects the entire brain, it makes the body stiffen, followed by a phase of rapid muscle contractions (extreme shaking).