This is where the injury to the brain is caused by an alternative condition other than a traumatic injury to the brain itself. Examples of these conditions are in instances where the brain is deprived of oxygen in which cases brain tissue begins to die. It can also be a condition in which the brain tissue is directly attacked. Specific examples would include a stroke, heart attack, drug overdose or severe brain infections such as meningitis, just to mention a few. Finally, the vegetative state can be a as a result of progressive brain damage.
Signs and Symptoms Symptoms experienced by patients clinically diagnosed with dementia include drastic mood and personality changes, problems with language, decrease in motivation and forgetfulness. There is a gradual decline in cognitive abilities and memory, impairing day to day living. 3.1 Physiological Symptoms Physiological symptoms include body tremors, balance problems, memory distortions, trouble eating or swallowing, among other key signs. In the initial stages of dementia- mild cognitive impairment, the signs and symptoms of the disorder are tenuous. Symptoms during this stage include memory difficulty such as anomia and problems with executive functions.
At least 31% of the people that have this disease have been suicidal at some point (Bonk). People cannot diagnose CTE until an autopsy has taken place, and they diagnose it with Tau protein. CTE is believed to have four stages that affect the human body. These stages are dangerous because many victims think it’s normal aging, and then they catch it too late (“What is CTE”). The first stage might not come until months to years after the head trauma.
Middle Adulthood Middle adulthood usually begins around age 40 and ends around age 65. Just like adolescence, this period of life is one that involves a lot of new changes to both the body and the mind. Because most of the changes in middle adulthood include changes in mental abilities, speed of processing, attention, and memory, the information processing theory best describes the development and behavior during these years. During middle adulthood, people tend to experience a loss of coordination and a gradual decline in speed. According to the neural network view, as neurons in the brain die, breaks in neural networks occur.
Introduction Multiple Sclerosis is a neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system, causing damage to the nerve cells, which could cause permanent damage, leaving those who suffering from the disease with a myriad of lifelong issues. According to Mayo Clinic (2018), “Signs and symptoms of MS vary widely and depend on the amount of nerve damage and which nerves are affected.” The damage varies from patient to patient; with many of the symptoms include numbness and tingling of the extremities, mental health issues, such as depression, vision issues, speech impairment, balance issues, and chronic fatigue, as well as incontinence and bowel issues. In more advanced stages, cognitive function can change, such as memory impairment,
Promoting Healthy Aging: Depression in Older Adults Depression is a serious mental health problem which affects many areas of a person's health including social, physical, mental, emotional and spiritual health. It affects people of all ages and backgrounds and greatly diminishes their quality of life when health care is not sought. Depression can lead to lowered, depressed moods, social isolation and a loss of enjoyment in activities the sufferer usually enjoys, among many other negative symptoms (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2013). In particular, with 15% to 20% of older adults experiencing it in Canada, the Canadian elderly population is vulnerable to its' effects because mental health has many social stigmas which may prevent people from seeking
The injuries that is critical in the areas such as thalamus and hypothalamus region will lead to the vascular dementia. Thus, people with vascular type of dementia tend to have disease of the blood vessels such as tobacco usage, high blood pressure, heart attacks, etc. Mixed dementia: Mixed dementia is another type of dementia, it is the combination of Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia or in general it is the conditions where changes can be represented with considering more than one type of dementia which occurs simultaneously in the brain, thus this type of dementia causes 10% of dementia cases. The symptoms of this type of dementia is that it depends on the type of dementia that are occurred simultaneously in the brain but it may have the same symptoms of Alzheimer’s type of dementia. Dementia with Lewy
Some of the reasons are very serious, such as CTE which is a brain disease caused by rapid hits to the brain, this has lifetime affects and changes you in many ways, in worst cases this can even cause death. Although that is one of the worst things that can happen there is still many others like concussions which last long, Alzheimer’s disease, and little things like depression and headaches all connecting to lifetime affects. The kids that don’t get these
The motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease takes place by a death from dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain; the cause of this cell death is unknown. Early in the course of the disease, the most noticeable symptoms are movement related, including shaking, stiffness, slowness of movement and diificulty with walking & bearing. Later, thinking and behavioral problems may arise, with dementia commonly in the advanced stages of the diseases, whereas depression is the most common psychiatric symptom. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep and emotional problem. Parkinson’s disease is more common in older people, with most causes taking place after the age of
Presbycusis or “age-related hearing loss (ARHL)” (Huang & Tang, 2010) is a hearing loss that is believed to be caused by combined effects of aging cell degeneration in the auditory system and noise exposure over time. (Niparko, J.K., 2010) Presbycusis may also result due to genetic factors, preexisting disorders of the ear, or presence of ototoxic elements. (Gates & Mills, 2005) Presbycusis is a growing concern for the elderly society, as it greatly effects communication. This deficit may create difficulties in “physical, cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and social function” (Huang & Tang, 2010) aspects of life for the elderly. Upon examining a patient with presbycusis, the most typical results display “bilateral, symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss affecting the higher frequencies, particularly 2,000-8,000 Hz.” (DeBonis, D., & Donohue, C., 2008) Patients with presbycusis often feel that speakers are mumbling in conversation.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy(CTE) is a progressive degenerative brain disease that affects the lives of many who suffer from head trauma of the brain. CTE has been associated with many different diseases within a person 's memory, personality changes, Parkinsonism, along with speech or gait abnormalities. The disease initially was described as “punch-drunk” syndrome. Dr. Harrison Martland made the theory in 1928 as a group of boxers began having multiple symptoms of what is formally known as Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. What has made Dr. Martland to assume this is due to the symptoms he had found in these boxers which included: deterioration of attention, loss of concentration, memory, disoriented or confused, dizziness, and the
It can also lead to pneumonia, sinus infections and blood poisoning. Children under the age of two and older adults who have weak immune systems are at the most risk. Pneumococcal meningitis is harmful and can cause severe brain damage or ca even cause someone to go deaf. Meningococcal meningitis is the second most common form of meningitis and it is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitides. People at risk for this disease include infants under the age of one, people who travel to foreign countries, freshmen in college who live in the dorms and people with suppressed immune systems.
Qualitatively, this disease can be seen with senile plaques on the brain, and neurofibrillary tangles that affect physical changes to the brain. Since there are so many branches of dementia, it can be hard to determine which type of dementia a patient is experiencing, needing to be looked at more closely. Some warning signs of this disease include getting lost, paying for bills and trouble managing money, retelling the same stories, repeatedly asking the same questions, and losing/ misplacing items, but not being able to recall how to find them (532). Though not all people progress through this disease at the same pace and times in their lives, these are just some of the few symptoms and abnormalities that those who have Alzheimer’s can display as opposed to someone their age with a normal functioning brain and having no dementia. Quantitatively, research has shown that Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 50-70% of all neurocognitive disorders (531).
People that suffer from head trauma like Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) have long term consequences but how does this affect their life and what are people suggesting to do about it? ALS and CTE are two forms of diseases to the brain that causes severe symptoms such as muscle weakness, memory loss, shortness of breath, and confusion. ALS is a rare disease with fewer than 20,000 cases per year found in the U.S. This type of disease affects nerve cells in the brain and in the spinal cord. CTE is some what similar to ALS but this other disease is commonly found in athletes with a history of repetitive brain trauma.