He suggests comparing a product with a brand name to an unnamed product what can explain the consumer’s buying habits and preferences (Jara & Cliquet, 2008). Keller applies brand awareness and brand image as two major components of his model. Thus, brand awareness relates to brand spontaneous recognition in consumer’s mind, and brand image is defined as brand associations erased in consumer’s memory. In regards to brand associations, three categories emerge, namely, attributes, benefits, and brand attitudes. Attitudes correspond to descriptive characteristics of the product; benefits relate to the personal value attached to the product; and brand attitudes are used for customers’ evaluation of a product.
Consumers make purchase decisions based on a product’s symbolic meanings and images, which can be used to create and enhance self-image. According to Graeff, (1997) brands associated images let consumers express who they are, what they are, where they are and how they want to be viewed. A person expects positive reactions from his significant referents, and brand image becomes a symbolic tool for goal accomplishment (Grubb and Hupp, 1968; Grubb and Stern, 1971). A person attempts to communicate to his significant references certain things about himself by using symbolic products. Consumers’ purchase decisions are significantly influenced by social value in that consumers perceive various brand images as either congruent or incongruent with the norms of the reference groups to which they belong or aspire (Grubb and Stern, 1971; Solomon, 1983).
Relationship marketing theory states that brand is an important relational tool in a ﬁrm 's consumer relationship management. Relationship marketing refers “to all marketing activities directed towards establishing, developing, and maintaining successful relational exchanges” (Morgan and Hunt, 1994). Relationship marketing theory posits that consumer perceptions of the strength of the relationship (e.g., commitment) shape consumers ' behavior in that relationship (Hunt et al., 2006). The most frequent perception representing the strength of the relationship is affective commitment (Morgan and Hunt, 1994; Verhoef, 2003), which refers to the psychological attachment to the relationship partner and is associated on feelings of loyalty and
Brand image is developed over time through various means such as advertising campaigns with a consistent theme. It is authenticated through the consumers' direct experience and satisfaction level. According to Hsieh, Pan and Section (2004), “a successful brand image enables consumers to identify the needs that the brand satisfies and to differentiate the brand from its competitors and consequently increases the likelihood that consumers will purchase the brand”. Keller (1993) considered brand image as “a set of perceptions about a brand as reflected by brand associations in consumer’s
Intra-organizational relationships are generally considered an important source for competitive advantage and value creation (Jones and George, 1998; Wagner and Hollenbeck, 1998). Internal Marketing Theory emphasizes the role of a firm 's internal network for gaining competitive advantage (Cooper and Cronin, 2000). Internal marketing has been defined as the strategy of communication development and derived from a network of relationships (Ballantyne, 2003). Internal Marketing Theory has become a useful theoretical lens for examining employee-supplier relationships. Bouranta and Mavridoglou (2003) have investigated how internal marketing might contribute to mutual benefits for both parties within employee-supplier relationships.
According to (Aaker 1991), brand equity can be determined through measuring its brand loyalty, brand association, brand awareness and perceived quantity. Yoo et.al (2000) and Atilgan et al (2005) explain that the higher brand equity can be build up through strong brand association. Furthermore keller (1993, 1998) argues that brand awareness could impact client decision making in purchasing a product through an effective brand association. According to many other scholars brand equity posses a structure of multiple aspects such as brand loyalty, brand image, brand awareness, brand association and perceived
This research study will show a relationship between brand loyalty and student satisfaction. Customer will become more loyal if the brand will more satisfy. For the explanation a relationship in this study in dependant and independent variables Quantitative approach will use based on the theoretical model .dependent variable is brand loyalty and independent variables are customer satisfaction, customer product involvement, brand image, brand experience, perceived product quality, and lastly brand switching cost. Important guidelines for future research would be to include other cities or countries and carry out a more in-depth analysis to realize the
Trait theory leads us to how we develop a relationship with brands in what is most commonly known as brand personality. In an article published by Jennifer L. Laarker (1997) she discusses the importance of brand personality to the consumer. Brands increasingly give their product humanlike attributes in order to appeal to their target audience. Some brands have “product related attributes” and these have a solely utilitarian function whereas brand personality speaks to the consumer on another level concluding that the consumer buys this brand because it sees similar attributes of her/himself in the brand. Brand personality which is favourable and strong will strengthen the brand.
He defined brand personality as a set of human features related to the brand. Brand personality shows the image or description of the customers from a specific brand as a result of data collection or experience gained from the brand. Obtaining a credential brand is one of the criteria of the customers in the selection of products since brand creates a specific identity for the products. Aaker stressed that brand recognition is the foundation of creation of a powerful brand, and human features can be attributed to the brand based on the concept of brand personality. Some examples of these features include how a brand continues to live, what a brand does during its life, etc.