Bread Lab Report

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INTRODUCTION Most of us eat bread in one form or another almost daily, whether it be on a sandwich, with your soup, as a side, or as a quick, but delicious snack. In fact, 99 bread products are purchased annually in households in the United Kingdom (“Facts About Bread”). All breads use a combination of the same four basic ingredients (wheat flour, liquids, salt, and yeast), but other ingredients may also be added, including spices or other flavorings, sugar, fats, or eggs, depending on what kind of bread is being made, and each of these ingredients serves a specific function (“Common Baking Ingredients”). THE FUNCTIONS OF INGREDIENTS As previously stated, the four main ingredients in breads and other yeast doughs are wheat flour, liquids (most…show more content…
Salt controls fermentation by inhibiting yeast growth. When too much salt is used, the yeast quantity is relatively low, and fermentation and proofing are slowed as a result. When too little salt is used, the yeast quantity becomes relatively high, and the yeast use too much sugar in the dough, which yields a poor crust color. Salt helps improve gluten structure by allowing the gluten to hold more water and carbon dioxide, which helps the gluten expand more while still keeping its structure (Gisslen,…show more content…
This reactions occurs when proteins and sugars are subjected to high heat. The Maillard reaction also occurs on meats and other foods (Gisslen, 102). HOW BREADS ARE MADE Another part of the chemistry behind bread is in how bread is made. The production of bread is a twelve step process, which includes: “scaling (measuring) ingredients, mixing, bulk fermentation, folding, dividing, preshaping or rounding, bench-proofing or intermediate proofing, makeup and panning, proofing, baking, cooling, and storing” (Gisslen 107). Of these steps, there are a few that are absolutely essential. These essential steps are scaling, mixing, bulk fermentation, intermediate proofing, and baking. The scaling step is essential because you can’t make bread if your ingredients aren’t measured. The mixing step is essential because there are three things that happen when you mix a yeast dough: the ingredients are combined into a smooth and uniform dough, the yeast is distributed throughout the dough, and the gluten is developed (Gisslen 107). The gluten helps give the dough structure, and so it needs to be properly developed in order to give the dough the structure that it needs (Gisslen,

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