What was the driving force behind European Imperialism in Africa? Between 1500 and 1800 the Europeans knew little about the interior of Africa their presence was to buy and sell slaves for pots, cloth, and weapons and set sail to America. Late as 1870 ten percent of Africa was under Europeans control and most was along edges by 1914 ninety percent of Africa was in control four years later. Due to the countries that held African colonies in 1914 that involved the British, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spain, and Belgian. France and Britain were the main conquer in African colonies, because there conqueror of land in Africa.
The European push to Africa was mainly due to the ban of slave in 1807. They needed another way to exploit Africa to support their economic, social and political growth. So colonization was an alternative way to harvest the abundant recourses present in Africa.
During the time of the writing of the constitution, most of the southern colonies were dependent on slave labor to produce cash crops, while primarily northern colonies wished to end slavery. This difference caused contention between the colonies when determining slavery in the constitution. A compromise reached, the constitution did not outright address its stance on slavery when it created the ⅗ clause, determined the importation laws of slaves, and the creation of the fugitive slave clause, the constitution continued to allow slavery in the United States. While the constitution neither promoted nor abolished slavery, the ⅗ clause in the Constitution integrated the counting of slaves as a part of representation in government. The clause created an increase in the southern states representation in the House of representatives, which only strengthened reasons to own slaves.
The Atlantic Slave trade was important as it created the initial demand for the devolvement of English exportation of manufactured goods. C Knick Harley comments in his work that “by 1770 trade (British Trade) with the Americas rivalled that with Europe”. Eric Williams believed that the cotton trade with the colonies, played an important role in the generation of capital, however this industry only come to fruition after 1800. This industry could not have had a significant affect in generating capital. It was an attribute to the textile industry in England however, its importance in underwriting the Industrial Revolution is unlikely.
Henry The Navigator was given the role as Duke of Viseu after their success. He came across new trade routes and wanted to obtain Africa’s resources for Portugal. He also wanted to explore to find the legendary Christian empire of the priest-king PresterJohn which ended up not existing. Henry The Navigator was one of the initiators of the Age of Discovery, he was not a Navigator but he did sponsor many explorations. Henry The Navigator was addressed as the governor of the Algarve.
In the 1800s, Europe finally made an attempt to explore Africa 's interior after being frightened by its foreign geographics and diseases. By 1880, Europe fully dictated Africa. Economics and competition were the driving forces behind Imperialism. Both of these components came from the Industrial Revolution; causing Europe’s desire to expand and its power to strongly take and effectively maintain African
During the 1800’s there was a race to claim the abundant resources in Africa and to force imperialism in the colonies. Before these European countries used the west coast of Africa for gold, slaves, and ivory they did not travel into the inside of Africa due to malaria and other tropical diseases until the 1800’s. So what exactly was the reason for European imperialism in Africa? The biggest reasons for imperialism in Africa are the vast and abundant resources available, nationalism, and the industrial revolution. National pride caused the need to expand their countries and become better than the other European countries.
From the 1500s to the 1800s, Europeans never took the risk of going into Africa. However, this all changed when imperialism began in the 19th century. Imperialism is the practice in which a country takes over another country in order to get more power. Because of imperialism, the continent of Africa was taken over by several European countries. To settle the laws of the colonization in Africa, European countries held the Berlin Conference.
The shipping of slaves from Africa to the New World became a huge international business. The mass import of slave into the colonies began after the Indian population was killed by disease and the indentured slaves didn’t want to do the hard work of sugar cane. Slavery didn’t grow as fast in North America as it did in Brazil and the West Indies. Slavery began to grew in the early 1700’s when the House of Burgesses pass a new slave code. Slaves became property.
The slaves are bound for life unless they escaped or received their freedom. Barbados, according to Breslaw, “the major source of labor in Barbados until the middle of seventeenth century was immigrant indentured servants from the British Isles, particularly England.” The planters did not choose the Native Americans for labor in the plantation because “the Indian death rate was so high following contact with Europeans and their passive resistance to labor demands.” The planters started to choose African slaves when they participated the Atlantic Slave Trade in 1640s. According to Breslaw, “African slaves were more valuable in the sugar fields, but were often suspected of conspiracies against the planters.” In Massachusetts, however, there are also indentured servants and slavery, but they are protected by the laws. According to Breslaw, the servants or slaves were “considered a part of a family and subject to a more general set of laws and obligations to the head of the household and the community.” The servants or slaves are protected under the laws as long as there are no wrong doings. The indentured servants and slaves in Massachusetts were treated as family members, “shared the table with masters and their families.” The similarities between Barbados and Massachusetts are labor in both locations are harsh.
In spite of this the British forbidden the slave trade in 1807. In the 19th century the British became the ruling power beside the River Gambia however the French progressed domestic along the River Senegal. In 1884 to 1885 the European powers separated up Africa. France was established as the colonial power in Senegal. In modern Senegal during the early 20th century Senegal was a wealthy colony exporting ground nuts.
In the fifteenth century, the Portuguese arrived and renamed the island, Fernando Po. In the end of the 1700s, Spain gain a large area of Africa in a trade with Portugal. This area included both Rio Muni and Bioko. Bioko was an important slave trade center, thanks to cocoa plants there, and was one of Spain 's most profitable territories in Africa. However, the island was taken over by the English from 1827 until 1858, this point was officially the Spanish takeover.
The Southern on the other hand, demanded free trade. Since they could not come up with a compromise, it was one of the factors causing the Civil War. National Crisis Nationalism was a powerful force in the early 19th century. Nearly all Northerners supported the Union but the Southerners were split between those loyal to the United States and those loyal to the southern region and then the Confederacy. C. Vann Woodward said of the latter group, "A great slave society ... had grown up and miraculously flourished in the heart of a thoroughly bourgeois and partly puritanical republic.
Slavery expanded in North America as the demand for tobacco increased (Brinkley) in the 1690s and after the Royal African Company of England lost its monopoly over the slave trade (Brinkley). Colonists needed a large work force for harvesting crops and growing tobacco after the “starving time” during 1619 in Virginia, so they turned to the Native Americans (Zinn). The Indians, after experiencing the “white man’s wrath” during Columbus’s time, would not be fooled into working for the colonists again (Zinn). In some places, like in the Carolina area, enslavement of the natives was made illegal in 1672, leaving the British colonies without enough workers (Zinn). This time the colonists resorted to the enslavement of Africans to prove to the laughing Indians that they were capable of taking care of themselves (Zinn).
Historiography supports the idea put forward by the Slavery museum that the slave trade was partially responsible for starting the industrial revolution. Robin Blackburn supports the museum’s view and believes that on the ‘onset of industrialisation… colonial profits made a significant contribution’. ‘Colonial profits’ is a rather vague term, though many colonial plantations relied upon slave labour. In addition the triangular trade in which slaves were exchanged for colonial goods was responsible for the delivery of colonial goods to Britain to be sold. Slavery played a significant part in producing these profits.