The substitution reaction was successful but not fully effective. 19. If the data was inconclusive, then comparing various compounds and the unknown based on physical characteristics would be the first step, titrations would also be a good method. 20. To get a better yield, redoing the experiment would require careful attention in the recrystallization steps: amount of solvent used, how hot solvent is, if the mixture cools to room temperature before placing it in an ice
The fastest pH was 6 (total:34.5), and it seems that there wasn’t a large change which resulted in a stable structure. The temperature in our experiment was not very high which didn’t result in denaturation of peroxidase. The temperature seemed to be a constant that didn’t affect the experiment. If the temperature was higher in pH 3 and low in pH 10, then it would cause pH 3 to denature even more which would make the pH 3 total about 4.0. Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate.
The most common are precipitation and complexation. In a precipitation reaction, an ion in solution reacts with an added reagent to form a solid. Whether a solid will form from a given reaction can be predicted by the solubility product constant (Ksp) of the solid under the given conditions. Solubility product constants are the equilibrium constants for the dissolution of an "insoluble" ionic solid in water. A low Ksp implies that the compound does not dissolve to an appreciable degree in water.
Abstract The purpose of this lab was to identify the unknown and find out which solution is solubility. The test was done to determine the identity of the compound include solubility test, flame test, formation of precipitate and last PH test. It was found that the unknown compound smell like chorine, was soluble in water. The flame test matches the color of calcium chorine indicating that the unknown compound contained chorine, also the anion test sodium chorine proved to be positive. Resulting in the experiment that the unknown compound was chorine.
UDEC 2224 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II NAME YONG ZHI RHEN NAME OF GROUP MEMBERS TEH HOOI SAN, TEO SEE ZHENG STUDENT ID 1307297 NO. OF EXPERIMENT EXP 3 TITLE OF EXPERIMENT Phase equibrium DATE OF EXPERIMENT 14/7/2015 PRACTICAL GROUP P2 LECTURER Dr. ONG SIEW TENG Title: Solubility equilibrium Objectives: To study the thermodynamics of solubility of naphthalene in diphenylamine Introduction: Phase equilibrium is a state of balance which rate of transfer of matter or heat from one phase to the other is equal to the rate of transfer in the reverse direction at equilibrium. The driving force for a phase change is the minimization of free energy and causing material or heat transfer are balanced at equilibrium. The equilibrium phase is always
-Volume of solution inside cuvette will be kept constant for all trials by adding only 2.5cm3 of starch and iodine solution and 0.5cm3 of Amylase and Sodium-Chloride solution to the cuvette. -Conducting all trials for the experiment at room temperature 22ºC controls temperature. -pH is kept at a constant by using the same solutions of Starch-iodine and Amylase-Sodium chloride for all trials. Materials: •Digital weighing scale (0.001g uncertainty) x1 •Volumetric flask 100cm3 (0.1cm3uncertainty)
In Equation 1, for example, increasing the amount of hydrogen peroxide will increase the rate at which it reacts with iodide. The concentrations of iodide and acid remain the same, so the rate will depend only on the changes in hydrogen peroxide concentration. (The iodide is recycled between Equations 1 and 2, and the concentration of acid is high enough that the change in its concentration is small. Note the concentrations of the reactants in the Materials and Equipment section). The rate actually depends on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide raised to a power, called the "reaction order."
This derivative exhibited maximum fluorescence intensity at 540 nm after excitation at 476 nm (Figure 2), the maximum absorbance of the reaction product was measured at 480 nm (Figure 3). 3.1. Optimization of the reaction conditions The experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the reaction product between the drug and the reagent were investigated and optimized. Each parameter was changed individually while the others were kept constant. These parameters include; pH, buffer (type & volume), concentration of NBD-Cl, reaction and stability time, temperature, acidification and diluting solvent.
The osmotic pressure coefficient must be determined for different solutions. It has been determined by various researchers and investigators to be less than unity and slightly increases with increasing solution concentration if the solute is not known or it is complex, we have to use mass concentration instead of molar concentration. For convenience: this model assumed to be at a constant temperature and is incorporated with the other constant Y which simplifies osmotic pressure to solute concentration coefficient. The value of Y was assumed t-o be constant over the operating range of the solute concentration. In corporation of osmotic pressure equation into the expression for the solute flux Eq.
Once AMD reached the coveted pH level, it was filtered using filter paper (0.45 μm) to obtain the precipitate. The filtrates were then measured for the EC level using conductivity meter, TDS level using TDS meter, and concentration of Cu2+ using PerkinElmer Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) Analyst 400. All analyses were conducted in Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Mataram. Filtrates (with several pH levels) found to still contain Cu2+, would be treated to the sulfidization treatment. Sulfidization treatment using SNW from Sebau This experiment was conducted by adding pure SNW from three sampling points (T1, T2, and T3) to the AMD with three different pH levels in 1:1 ratio reaction.
After identifying reagents and finding the theoretic yield, it’s possible to find the excess reagent mass and number of moles for each test. To do this, the smallest mole number of Ca(OH)2 was subtracted from the highest one. The result is used to find the amount of moles excess, by multiplying it to the corresponding number of moles of excess reagent and dividing then by 1 mole of Ca(OH)2. After finding the answer in moles, it’s possible to find the number of grams by following the rules of conversion factors from moles to grams. 5.