PARENT-CHILD INTERACTION THERAPY NAME: INSTITUTION: DATE: Question 1 Yes. I agree with the coercion hypothesis and think it is very reasonable, it reflects the common situation in many households worldwide. Where the parent in good faith tries to disciple the child by being harsh this procedure of discipline gives short-term results. (Lanier et al., 2015) As time progresses the child rebels only to get more harsh treatment and punishment from the parent. This state leaves the parent-child relationship on the rocks with a lot of tension.
The concept of attachment in the doctrine was introduced by English psychoanalyst John Bowlby (John Bowlby, 1907-1990). Attachment refers to the specific relationship formed between mother and child and lasts throughout life, as a permanent psychological link established between two people (Holmes, 2004). Regarding this, it should be pointed out that Bowlby was not the first one that observed and defined the relationship between mother and child. A decade before him, psychoanalysis as a condition of normal child development sets the continuous and a close relationship with the child 's mother. According to the psychoanalytic concept of the relationship of the child with the mother based on the fact that the mother provides the satisfaction of the child 's primary needs (Zazo, 1980).
Microsystem Talks about the closest person to a child and the person who may have exact contact with a child while growing up. In this situation we may include places like home, school, day-care, or work. A microsystem normally covers family, peers, or caregivers. Relationships in a microsystem are bi-directional. In other words, your reactions to the people in your microsystem will have effect on how they treat you back.
The Memory Keeper’s Daughter The environment in which someone grows has the power to shape and influence individuals into the people they become and the actions they take. This phenomenon is especially apparent when considering how young children are impacted by their home life, relationships among and with parents, and the parent’s actions. Corresponding with the scientific concept of nature vs. nurture, literature has often used the hardships someone faces at home or in their environment, or the warmth and love from their environment, to justify character’s actions and show how that can change people. In Kim Edwards’ novel, The Memory Keeper’s Daughter, Edwards tells the story of two twins separated at birth, Paul who is perfect in every way, and Phoebe who has Down Syndrome and is seen as undesirable in the 1960s setting. Paul and Phoebe’s father, Dr. David Henry, makes the decision to send Phoebe away to not crush his wife, Norah, with their daughter’s condition.
They provided age appropriate tests and questioners for mothers, questioners were also given to the child’s teachers once they became school aged. This study was set up to evaluate the child's progress at certain stages of the child’s life. Starting at five months they checked the overall health of the child; at twelve months, they evaluated the type of attachment between child and mother; at twelve, eighteen, and thirty months, and at seven and fourteen years, they evaluated maternal sensitivity and temperament of the child; at seven and fourteen years, they evaluated the social development of that child, and stressful life events along with social status of the family. The study concluded that developmental history and past experiences, along with present circumstances, and the child’s characteristics played a role in the child’s social development. Another study compared IQs between children who had been adopted, and children or siblings who had remained in institutional care or in the care of their biological parents.
Key words: Child, Caregiver, Environment, Interaction Introduction Conceptual model or theoretical models are used in nursing research provides an organizing structure for the study. Nurses utilize various theories such as Self care deficit theory, Newman’s systems theory and Pender’s health promotion model based on the study variables. Child health assessment interaction model is used to assess the primary relationship between the mother and child, specifically designed for children below three years of age. Children learn through daily experiences based on the support they received at the time of distress. A child’s experience is characterized by getting
Belsky believed that by looking in to the developmental history, personality, marital relations and work of a parent can influence the parenting style, along with the child's developmental stage and characteristic. When looking at the model and the book they generally go hand in hand. The book talks about how forming a secure attachment effects how a person will act when they are older. If you look back into the developmental history of a parent, you can see how they were raised and how it influenced them in their childhood and adult lives. Of course, if a parent had a poor connection or attachment to their parent, it does not necessarily mean they will parent the same way.
This essay will now look more specifically at the findings that have emerged which both support and challenge the relevance of Bowlby’s theory. To understand the behaviour of children and adolescence it is crucial to look at Mary Ainsworth’s findings; she showed that Bowlby’s concepts could be empirically tested. Ainsworth provided a stimulus for the immense amount of research that is continuing to develop the theory. Ainsworth’s Strange Situation studies (1970’s), where babies were separated from their mothers and styles of attachment were categorised based on the babies reactions to separation, were central in developing Bowlby’s attachment theory. Depending on the style of attachment, behaviour would be understood and even predicted.
It teaches children physical skills such as walking and talking, and also introduces infants to values and the difference between right and wrong. In the stimulus there were many stories of children growing up in abusive or unsafe families, one example being the childhood of Robert Kelly, (talking about his mother) ‘She was drunk, a daily thing … she hit me with whatever she could her hands on’(Rushworth & Ferguson, 2009). Yet child abuse in Macquarie Fields doesn’t seem to register the kind of anger it does in most of Australia. For example, Milo Middleton’s attitude towards the violence he had just inflicted on
Bronfenbrenner states that the microsystem involves people in an individual’s immediate environment who interact in a bi-directional relationship, known as a dyad, with the individual (Hook, 2009). Bronfenbrenner describes this as a bi-directional relationship because both people present in this relationship will have an affect on one another directly whether positive or negative (Hook, 2009). Therefore when trying to understand the effect of social economic status and poverty on the development of a child’s schooling one could look at the microsystem and analyse the relationship between the teacher and the child as well and between the child and a friend. By looking at these relationships the conclusion could be made that due to the lack of resources present in a low-income school, such as a very large class with only one teacher, the child does not have sufficient face-to-face interaction with the teacher and as a result the child might not get the help they need regarding a subject and this could therefore decrease their academic performance. A child’s relationship with their peers could also be affected due to poverty because the child might not have access to the same material items as other children, therefore it might be hard for children to form relationships and make friends because they could be teased.