Brown and Levinson’s (1987) theory has been considered as the most influential theory of politeness. Their theory is based on Goffman’s (1971) assumptions, focusing mainly on his notion of face. Goffman defined the concept of face as the “positive social value of a person effectively claims for himself by the live others assume he has taken a particular contact” (2005, p. 5). In politeness theory that is adopted from Grice’s (1975) cooperative principle, Brown and Levinson (1987) attempted to clarify Austin’s (1962) classification of utterances, which related to the social functions of language within interaction bearing and speaker’s rationality in conversation. Brown and Levinson defined the notion of face with “the aspects of face as basic wants, which every member knows every other member desires, and which in general, it is in the interests of every member to partially satisfy” (1987, p. 62).
Brown and Levinson (1987) define 'face' as "the public self-image that every member wants to claim for himself/herself"(p.311). While Goffman define 'face' as "positive social value that a person claims for himself" (Pinker, 2007, p.380). In general, people help each other in maintaining face through interaction, because they depend on each other. Furthermore, the content of face differs in different cultures because of the difference of personalities (pp.311-12), Brown and Levinson assume that "the mutual knowledge of members' public self-image or face, and the social necessity to orient oneself to it in interaction, are universal"
It is defined as “the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself during a particular contact (Ogiermann, 2009: 11). Whereas, Leech (2005: 01-07) named this theory as Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP), which is evident in common linguistic behavior patterns in the performance of polite speech acts such as requests, offers, apologies, and responses to these politely. Accordingly, he introduced the Principle of Politeness (PP) analogous, is a constraint observed in human communicative behavior, influencing us to avoid communicative discord or offence, and maintain communicative concord and entertain mutually incompatible goals. That is, according to him, politeness is an aspect of goal-oriented behavior; i.e. S’s goal in using polite utterance is, in some degree, to uphold the PP, and to communicate that goal to H. Politeness is concerned with avoiding discord and fostering concord, during communication.
According to Rogers, people need to feel, experience and behave in ways which are consistent with their self-image and which reflect what they would like to be like, their ideal-self (Saul McLeod 2014). The closer their self-image and ideal-self are to each other, the more consistent or congruent they are. For Carl Rogers, a person who has high self-worth has positive feelings and confidence about him or herself (Saul McLeod 2014). They confront challenges in life, accept failure and unhappiness at times, and is open with people. Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed when interaction with others.
In The Autobiography, Franklin creates a list of virtues he endeavoured to demonstrate to manufacture an identity from scratch, boasting that the emulation of these virtues was the reason for his social success. With the display of virtues such as humility, Franklin changed the initial view others had of him as “proud”, “overbearing, and rather insolent” to receiving “a readier reception and less contradiction” from others towards his ideas (14). Here, Franklin achieves social support from others through the invention of a virtuous identity. Not only does he achieve social support through his constructed identity, Franklin also gains social approval, successfully assimilating into the American society. Conversely, the ex-coloured man reinvents his identity while following a set of societal expectations.
Our analysis revealed that emoji has a phatic function. It was mentioned that this discourse depicts on emoji usage that seems to constitute, above all else, a visually based version of “small talk” that is used typically for establishing social contact and for keeping the lines of communication open and pleasant. This discourse was first studied and was coined by Malinowski (1923) as cited by Danesi (2017). This is accordingly used to characterize such talk as a social skill. In 1955, Erving Goffman coined “positive social face” during the communicative interaction.
1. Meaning of “Inclusion” A disability may be generally defined as the result of the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder their full participation in society on an equal basis with others. Persons with disabilities include those who have long term or intermittent physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments. Inclusion is the state of being included in all spheres of life without restrictions and limitations. It embraces the view that all individuals should be valued by society by ensuring that everyone can integrate and take part in all aspects of it.
Although the politeness mainly is considered in cross-cultural and interlanguage studies as a main point in indirect speech acts, but this theory is still developing. Therefore, it seems that there is necessity to a short description of the most influential models of politeness theory which was adopted as a framework theory in the current research. Leech’s Politeness Principle (1983) may be seen as a continuation of Grice’s Cooperative Principle in the way it provided a model of politeness within conversation. While in contrast to Grice, Leech attempted to explain, what the real means of indirect speech act in people’s interactions . Since, he proposed that some independent variables “social distance, authority, costs and benefits of an act”
The concept of androgyny has been introduced to literature due to the work of Sandra Bem (1974). She believes that androgyny is the simultaneous possession by an individual of an equivalent number of characteristics recognized in our culture as strongly masculine and strongly feminine. Feminist psychologists were interested in this concept of androgyny because it allowed them to understand the healthy individual as someone who possessed traits considered stereotypically suitable for both sexes (Bem, 1974). The word androgyny comes from the Latin andro that means male and Latin gyne that means female (Hoffman and Borders, 2001). For Spence (1980) the concept of psychological androgyny and its theories rest on three interrelated propositions: (1) masculine and feminine characteristics, attributes and behaviors; (2) masculinity and femininity as an unidimensional phenomena each, meaning that individuals display or admit into their self-concept a certain degree of masculinity and of femininity in all other domains; and (3) having a high degree of both masculine and feminine qualities (androgyny) is more advantageous to the individual than possessing only a high degree of masculine or feminine attributes, or even a low degree of both.
Malaysia likewise requires leaders who are agreeable individuals and willing to give up time, vitality and money related and individual premiums aside for the country. Pioneers who work with commitment and earnestness will get the help and regard from all kinds of different backgrounds. All individuals need to provide to the interests of national devotion and solve their own group. This nation is a nation for all residents, race, religion, culture, and governmental issues. All individuals ought to expect that they are a nation of Malaysia in which everything ought to be delighted in like manner.