The Civil Rights Act was caused by many things including the Brown v Board of Education case, Rosa Parks arrest, Little Rock school desegregation, and the march on Washington. In 1955, Rosa Parks nonviolently protested by refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger and was then arrested, this then led to bus boycotts to try to end segregation in buses. Interestingly enough, segregated buses were a violation of the 14th amendment. Another event that led up to the Civil Rights Act was the Little Rock school desegregation in 1957. A group of African-American students decided to integrate Central High School in Arkansas, they were faced with a white mob and the governor did not agree with these actions.
Civil disobedience comes in many forms, varying from boycotts to school walkouts. One of the most well known forms of civil disobedience in American history is the Montgomery Bus Boycott, taking place in a segregated Alabama. Rosa Parks, amongst dozens of other outspoken African Americans, led a movement in Montgomery which had tens of thousands of African Americans stop riding the bus. This event led to the creation of the MIA, or the Montgomery Improvement Association. This hurt the bussing companies but not the African Americans, which created carpools and taxis to get around.
Rosa Parks I have learned over the years that when one 's mind is made up, this diminishes knowing what must be done does away fear. According to reference.com Rosa Parks went to jail in December, 1, 1955. Rosa Parks says never be fearful about what you are doing when it is right. Rosa was on the bus and tried to kick Rosa out of her seat because he thought he could because she was black. Rosa refused to move out of her seat and then the bus driver called the cops on Rosa.
On the December 5th of 1955, after the events of December 1st 1955. People in Montgomery Alabama started to boycott the bus program. They refused to ride the buses. They carpooled, walked and rode bikes to get places. This lasted a year about and (381) days.
Lastly I will go into greater detail and explain the situations and also tell you what the situations mean to me and then I will compare them. African Americans had faced many challenges with discrimination one involving busing where they had boycotted busing and made a carpool to continue on with regular life due to the boycott of the city buses. After reading the article I must say
“During the 1947 action, African-American and white bus riders tested the 1946 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Morgan v. Virginia that segregated bus seating was unconstitutional. The 1961 Freedom Rides sought to test a 1960 decision by the Supreme Court in Boynton v. Virginia that segregation of interstate transportation facilities, including bus terminals, was unconstitutional as well (History. )” Freedom riders, viewed as a group of rebels who didn't follow society by advocating for equality of African Americans. Nowadays, when the Civil Rights Movement is mentioned, people automatically think Martin Luther King Jr., but who most people didn't know, were the Freedom Riders. A group of African and Caucasian males and females came together and
The event that brought about the boycott took place on December 1, 1955. On this day, four African American passengers, including Rosa Parks, were asked to give up their seats on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, as per a city ordinance. Parks was the only one to refuse. Because of this, she was arrested and fined. When Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. caught wind of this, he and a colleague organized the boycott of Montgomery 's bus system.
The event that I have chosen is the Freedom Rides, which started May 4, 1961 and ended December 10, 1961. The Freedom Rides were inspired by the Greensboro Sit-ins, and started with 13 African American and Caucasian protestors riding buses into the segregated south to challenge the lack of enforcement to the Supreme Court ruling that segregated buses were unconstitutional. While the activists were peaceful the local law enforcement and people against their message were not. The activists were beaten at several stops along their journey from Anniston to Birmingham with chains, bricks, and bats by Ku Klux Klan (KKK) members in Alabama, and activists that were injured would be refused hospital treatment. Bull Connor, Commissioner of Public Safety
60 years ago in Montgomery, Alabama Rosa Parks refused to give her seat up on the bus to a white man, he told her he would have her asserted and she replied “You may do that” (Brinkley 2000). Rosa Parks was then arrested and fined. The events that led up to the arrest of Rosa Park changed the civil rights movement and the United States. It has nearly been 6 decades since Rosa Park’s arrest, and if you ask me our country is still dealing with racial justice issues. Mrs. Clinton recently spoke at an event honoring Rosa Parks saying, “There is something profoundly wrong when black men are disproportionately stopped and searched by the police, arrested or killed.”(New York Times).
Many colored people hated the fact of being separated but only a few took a stand and did something about it. Three greatly known people are Rosa parks, Martin Luther King Jr., and Jimmie Lee Jackson. Rosa Parks was a civil rights activist. She was born on February 4, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama. Her refusal to give up a seat to a white man on a bus caused Rosa to be thrown in jail.
Board of Education consisted of 5 different cases with a similar premise, but the well-known story of behind the groundbreaking event began in Topeka, Kansas with a man named Oliver Brown. Due to the segregation laws in Kansas at the time, his third-grade daughter, Linda, could not attend a nearby white school and had to trek a mile to a bus stop to attend a black school that was much further away. Consequently, Oliver Brown attempted to enroll his daughter in a local school for whites in 1950 with several other black families. As expected, they were turned down. However, under the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, or the NAACP, Brown, and other black families filed a lawsuit against the board of education of
As New York Times v. Sullivan began in 1960 and continued through 1964, the South overflowed with racial tensions. Just one month before the Times published “Heed Their Rising Voices” in 1960, a student-sit-in at a Woolworth lunch counter sparked the sit-in movement that spread throughout the Deep South. Not long after that, the Freedom Riders boarded buses across the Southern States in ‘62 and faced violence from the Ku Klux Klan, which only provoked more protests. This situation attracted the attention of both the media and the Court. The “Heed Their Rising Voices” ad boldly summarized: “Again and again the Southern violators have answered Dr. King’s peaceful protests with intimida-tion and violence.” This quotation exhibits the frustrated environment that segregationists created in the South, and establishes the setting of New York Times v. Sullivan.
After Brown Vs Board all southern schools were ordered to desegregate “with all deliberate speed” and many schools did not desegregate such as the high school in Little Rock, Arkansas; nine black students wished to attend and were harassed by whites including Melba Pattillo who had acid poured on her face and was stabbed. After the white resistance would not disappear, partly due to Orval Faubus’s lack of support for the black students, Eisenhower sent in federal troops to escort the black students to and from class. This showed involvement as this was the first time a president had directly got involved with the civil rights campaign and showed he public and the rest of the south that racism would not be tolerated and desegregation needed to happen. Another way president showed support was JFK. In 1963 JFK addressed Civil rights in a speech calling it a moral issue.
One historical event we have studied this year was the Montgomery Bus Boycott which began on December 5th 1955 and ended on December 20th 1956 in Montgomery, Alabama. African Americans had been discriminated against since slavery began in 1619, and even after slavery was abolished in 1863, black people still faced extreme racism every day. An example of this is the enforced segregation of public buses. The front section of the buses were for white passengers and the back section was for Black passengers. Although black people made up 70% of the passengers of public buses, if the bus was full and a white person wanted to get on then the black people would have to give up their seats for the whites and stand.
On December 1, 1955, there was an encounter between a black woman and a white man. Rosa Parks was her name, and she refused to move to the back of the bus so the white man could sit at the front. After this incident, a boycott was organized. The organizers along with other black groups held their meeting in the basement of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church. This is where Dr. King preached.