Cowieson, A., Bedford, M. (2009). The Effect of phytase and carbohydrase on ileal amino acid digestibility in monogastric diets: Complimentary mode of action. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 65(4), 609 – 624. Cowieson, A. J., D. N. Singh, and O. Adeola (2006b). Prediction of ingredient quality and the effect of a combination of xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase in the diets of broiler chicks.
The behavior perspective believes that we do things based on what we have learned from our environment through classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning refers to learning by association and operant condition is learning from consequences. So if the chicken is taught that he gets food when he crosses the road, such as in classical conditioning, he will eventually start crossing the road anytime he is hungry. What if the chicken crosses the road for food because it learns that if it doesn’t there is a loud bang behind it? This is the operant conditioning approach.
Carol Morison, the owner of “Perdue Chicken Farmer”, provided access to Food Inc. to be in her chicken farm. During here interview, she stated, “The companies don’t want farmers talking They don’t want this story told.” (Kenner, Food Inc.) Morison also claimed to state that, “It doesn’t matter if the chickens get sick. All of the chickens will go to the plant for processing” (Kenner, Food Inc.) From this interviewer’s statements, Carol Morrison is a credible source because he spends most of her time in the chicken farm and she has interacted with many other companies like Food Inc. To show ethos in this documentary, the author used his personal experience along with what the industry has stated. “I 've eaten this food all my life not knowing what was in it and how powerful the food industry was." (Kenner, Food Inc.) “The industry doesn 't want you to know what you 're eating because if you did, then you might not want to eat it" (Kenner, Food Inc.) Ethos components in the film strengthen the documentary claim about the food
For example. In the last trail, the feeder on the hook attracted more birds than ever assumed. An appalling 363 g of chicken feed was consumed by wild birds, which was way more than anticipated, and there is also the fact that hardly any wild birds showed up for trials 1-5, but then for some reason, in the sixth tril, the birds came flying in one by one, until there were about 10 birds at the feeder, which is already multiple birds more than before. This was by far the most unexpected result that occurred. An unlikely, but possible explanation of why this may have occurred however, is because of the fact that they do not know the feeder is put out with food in it until they spot the chicken eating from it,but the chicken was locked up for this
This caused the muscles in the chicken’s legs to propel it forward and thus cross to the other side of the road. With behavioral psychology, the environment would be the determinant of the observable behavior. In the case with the chicken, the environment would be the road, what is on it, what is on the other side of the road, and anything else within sight of the area. The observable behavior would be the chicken crossing the road. There could be many reasons why the chicken would be crossing the road, such
Michael Pollan’s alternative to Factory farming has given a huge insight into a better ethics on food. In “The Animals: Practicing Complexity” Michael Pollan writes about a polyface farm and how it works. The goal of a polyface farm is to emotionally, economically, and environmentally enhance agriculture. Everything on a polyface farm has the potential to be helpful to something else on the farm. Pollan states “The chicken feed not only feeds the broilers but, transformed into chicken crap, feeds the grass that feeds the cows that, as I was about to see, feeds the pigs and the laying hens” (Pollan 345).
What Is Jell-O? Retrieved April 26, 2017, from http://www.livescience.com/42088-what-is-jello-jell-o.html Labelle, T. (2013, March 08). Enzymes in Meat Tenderizers. Retrieved April 26, 2017, from https://prezi.com/fmlcf5g4fugr/enzymes-in-meat-tenderizers/ The Science of Food Preservation. (2015, April 24).
Predicted energy values of raisins by-products using NRC beef 1996 and NRC 2001 dairy program P-value SEMD Raisin by-products (RBP)d Item RBP3 RBP2 RBP1 NRC dairy 2001 energy values (MJ/kg DM)e 0.05 0.593 2.68b 5.52a 4.90a NElp NRC beef 1996 energy values (MJ/kg DM) 0.05 0.735 5.99b 9.45a 11.48a ME 0.05 0.722 2.51b 5.94a 7.70a NEm 0.05 0.677 0.29b 3.47a 5.06a NEg dRaisins by-products were 1) some outer layer of flesh and skin and pedicle of berries (RBP1); 2) rejected raisins mostly un-ripped berries with their pedicles (RBP2), and 3) stalks, rachises and pedicles of grapevines; Means with different superscript letters (a, b and c) within the same row differ (P < 0.05); SED, standard error of difference. eNet energy lactation at production level of intake (NElp) was calculated according to NRC dairy 2001 and metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for maintenance (NEm) and growth (NEg) were calculated according to NRC beef 1996. Table 3.In vitro gas production kinetics and predicted nutrient supply of raisin by-products. P-value SED Raisin by-products (RBP)d Item RBP3 RBP2 RBP1 Gas production characteristicse 0.28 10.4430 224.8 253.7 225.2 b (ml/g
The preference of food by ants has been studied such as Barbani (2003), studied the food preference and activity of Odorous house ants, and O’Brien (2005) studied the Red imported fire ants and their preference in liquid feeding. It has been seen that ants can as act predators, scavengers, herbivores, detrivores and granivores (Holldobler and Wilson, 1990; Holway et al., 2002) and they choose food which varies in abundance, accessibility, palatability and nutritional value (Goud). The digestive system also plays a role in the type of food to be selected because the intake of food. The digestive enzymes of ants are able to breakdown solid foods and hence most ants prefer liquid sugary food because it easy to digest than the other times of food (Barbani, 2003; Ricks and Vison, 2004). In this will determine ant’s foraging preference when exposed to different sugar concentrated solutions.