Pictures of Buddha Amitabha and the Pure Land were created as well. (Andrews 1991, 185) Shandao made the Pure Land doctrines and practices more systematic. 2.5 Development after Tang Dynasty In Tang Dynasty, the spread of Pure Land Buddhism was affected by political environment. For the people who supported the monastic tradition, they tried to combine Pure Land into Chan Buddhism’s teaching. One of the supporters Chuhung (1535-1615) once mentioned that there were no big differences between the Buddhists teaching because they were all based on Chan Buddhism.
Although there has been countless time that China’s government ruled over the religion, and now there is hope that id does not need to be that same way again because it was different back then. For the flow of the world to work, it had to be balanced and the traditional Chinese religion focused their beliefs on yin and yang to bring that about. The “good” and “evil” is what yin and yang is about, however, the correct way is when things are working together is what brings balance, and that is why it is a common misconception for yin and
/ ‘Baldhead-Ass-’In the past Ah Q had cursed under his breath only, inaudibly” (Lu,3, Chapter 3). The character is upset after he sees a Chinese citizen with bald hair rather than a queue, a required Chinese braid worn throughout the Ming Dynasty. After the “Imitation Foreign Devil” arrives from studying abroad in Japan, he has come back stripped from his Chinese roots with a new hairstyle (Lu). Since Ah Q, Lu’s version of an inadequate citizen, gets upset over this, Lu proves to the reader that the rejection of different culture is handicapping the country. Rather than ignoring influences from other countries and falling back on older rituals, China should use these advances to progress as a society.
Although Buddhism originated in the sixth century B.C.E, it quickly spread to China by the first century C.E. Buddhism was both accepted and adopted by many, but also opposed by just as many at the same time. Still some Chinese citizens chose to neither fully adopt or fully oppose the religion, but rather incorporated unique Chinese traditions into Buddhism and also created new traditions from it. Buddhism’s spread in China was met with many different responses. However, the mix of responses could be due to the fact that Buddhism’s arrival fell in the middle of a period of instability for China.
Despite this initial massive discontinuity between the two forms of Buddhism, the Chinese patronage of Buddhist monks attracted more Buddhist monks from India who later produced more sophisticated translations of the sutras “closer to the spirit of Buddhism” (Eno 7). Nevertheless, it is understandable why Yinshun and other critical Buddhists felt that reliance on Chinese sutras as primary sources yielded distorted readings of Buddhism. The initial translations were highly tailored to appeal to Chinese cosmological constructions, and it is unlikely that later translations were completely free from similar pressures and
The barbarization was looked upon as a negative thing. In actuality, the barbarization of China gave China the opportunity to open its doors to new societies and cultures creating diversity and growth. The Silk Road gave China to learn Military Skills from the nomads, and receive the religious teachings and messages of the Buddhist monks. Imperial patronage allowed Buddhism to grow in strength and
He says, “those who argue like this [Christians] are no more than beasts able to speak a human language.” Even though Ricci and other Jesuits attempted to convert the Chinese people by emphasizing the similarities between the two religions, there were too many differences between the two teachings to create a significant impact. Yang Guangxian demonstrated that asking someone to abandon so much of their beliefs is quite
Chinese mythology has shaped the way that china is today. Although some may say that since Chinese culture is so old, Myths are useless, fake, stories; but it is clear that Chinese mythology did influence the cultures belief and was the base of many religions. Chinese Mythology has altered china’s culture and beliefs throughout the years because of the religions, lifestyle, and political view from mythology. The importance of religion in China is what keeps the ancient countries culture unforgotten, but the mythology in China is what shaped those cultures. According to Living Myths, about Chinese Mythology “Much Chinese mythology is based on animism, which sees the land itself as alive.
In Chinese tradition, communities would join together during times of need to pray for the gods and ancestors for rain. To show their dedication to Christianity, the Christian converts “refused to participate in the rituals, [which made] their neighbours suspected that this was the reason the gods disregarded [the Chinese’] pleas for rain” (Szczepanski 1). This cause suspicion and distress to grow, with some Chinese calling that the last straw. This shows that the new people in their land was convincing the nationals of the Christian community’s superiority of the traditional Chinese belief. There was more and more tension between the Chinese and the outsiders, it was like the Americans were goading the Chinese into starting a fight.
Mao’s rise to power was a result of favourable conditions resulting from both the failures of the Nationalist party (GMD) and the various successes of the Communist party (CCP). Before Mao was able to consolidate his power over China in 1949, he first had to become solitary leader of the CCP party which he accomplished through his effective use of propaganda, ideology, policies and use of force. Prior to this, China had been led by incompetent leaders and as a result of their actions, it experienced a weakness of political system, impact of war and various economic factors. Towards the beginning of the 20th century, the Qing dynasty which had ruled China for nearly two millennia, was on the verge of collapse. After the fall of the empire
Due to China’s Warring Period after the Han Dynasty, Buddhism gained popularity because no imperial authority was around to enforce laws. Once an empire rose to power, Buddhism was turned against. Initially the Chinese defended Buddhism and its policies, but after centuries, others increasingly analyzed how Buddhism had not presence in older documents. Buddhism began to be blamed for the political and social problems of Chinese society. An additional document, such as a graph, that demonstrates actual numbers of Buddhist converts of this time period would help determine if the given documents’ author’s statements about Buddhism were accurate.
Han Yu cited Confucius in his rage to ridicule Buddhism as “a cult of barbarian peoples” (Doc #4). Han Yu’s position in the imperial court certainly suggests his ideas were an official state standard, though one would need additional evidence from Han Yu’s emperor’s response to Han Yu’s plea in order to know how much influence actually Han Yu held over official policy. Emperor Wu also called for Buddhism’s “eradication,” as the cause for “poisoning customs.” As Emperor, it is likely that Wu’s Edict carried a lot of weight, but it is also possible Wu was jealous of Buddhist monasteries “outshining [his own] imperial palace” than by true concern for his subjects’ welfare. A census showing causes of death would allow historians to objectively evaluate whether Buddhism truly caused citizens to “go hungry,” as Emperor Wu claimed (Doc
After imperial structure was restored, the Chinese began to disapprove of Buddhism (docs 4, 6). Chinese government authorities increasingly saw Buddhism as a threat to their political power and moved to discredit it. Imperial Tang advisor Han Yu saw Buddhism as evil, anti-Confucian, and illegal (doc 4). Han Yu’s position and livelihood greatly depends on Confucianism remaining dominant, especially due to the civil service system, which provided him with his government job. Due to this, he is not a very reliable source on how the average citizen and even the Chinese emperor felt about Confucianism remaining dominate (doc 4, POV).
During the 19th century, America promised land and opportunities for all. Though some groups of individuals left their homes willingly in order to take advantage of what America had to offer, others were forced to flee due to inhabitable conditions in their homelands. Both Chinese and Irish immigrants, however, were often disappointed with their treatment upon arrival in America. The Anglo-Saxons that first inhabited America viewed immigrants as uncivilized and quickly declared their superiority, forcing immigrants to work for them. They created laws that prevented groups from accessing similar privileges as them and racialized these groups based on their cultures and languages.
The Ming also inherited a huge and successful postal and transportation system. However, many Mongol practices were shunned due to the major distrust that the Chinese developed for them. On the other hand, Yuan relations with the Muslims benefitted the next dynasty. Muslim contributions of astronomy and mapmaking was very important to Ming continuation of the sciences (“Yuan dynasty”). Last, with the loss of major overland trade routes such as the Silk Road, came the rise of the Indian Ocean trade routes (Fitzgerald 238).