What is the specific mechanism responsible for producing this effect (Be specific)? (6 marks) The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is synthesized by neurons located in the hypothalamus and are stored in and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (Silverthorn et al., 2013). The high osmolarity of a dehydrated person is the primary stimulus for the secretion of ADH (Saladin, 2004). This hormone acts on the collecting duct of the nephron (Silverthorn et al., 2013). ADH increases and water reabsorption and decreases osmolarity of renal filtrate (reduces urine output) by two mechanisms.
Certain types of birth control. Women who use diaphragms for birth control may be at higher risk, as well as women who use spermicidal agents. Menopause. After menopause, a decline in circulating estrogen causes changes in the urinary tract that make you more vulnerable to infection. Other risk factors for UTIs include: Urinary tract abnormalities.
M3 Cholinergic receptors are the one that responsible for parasympathetic detrusor contraction. Thus oxybutynin compete with acetylcholine (ACh), binding Oxybutynin lead inactivation of Phospholipase C and result in inhibition of Calcium ion releasing and lead to relaxation of detrusor muscle. Oxybutynin studies determine that Oxybutynin can increase maximum urinary bladder holding capacity and increases the volume to detrusor contraction. Oxybutynin is appropriate for the patients that having conditions of involuntary detrusor contractions such as Mrs.
IVF is a type of fertility treatment and a form of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). IVF is usually used when people cannot conceive naturally or they are having difficulty conceiving. The IVF process is when the females have to take fertility drugs such as Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and Pituitary agonists (analoques) to stimulate the ova so that the ova can develop into mature eggs. This is to create a higher chance of falling pregnant. Fertility drugs then stop mensuration so that the egg does not get wasted and excreted out of the uterus.
In Graves’ disease, the immune system creates autoantibodies that mimic the function of TSH and stimulate production of more thyroid hormones. Consequently, this leads to hypersecretion of thyroid hormones. Excess thyroid hormones increase the body’s metabolic rate and speed up various body functions. • Graves’ disease is characterized
It has also been found that H2S can produce other hypotensive effects such as regulating plasma renin levels (Lu et al., 2010) and inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme activity in endothelial cells (Laggner et al., 2007). H2S is also involved in reducing angiotensin II production and inhibiting bradykinin degradation, thus maintaining blood pressure (Laggner et al., 2007). H2S also plays a role in the regulation of renal function. It increases renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and urinary sodium and potassium secretion, hence regulating blood pressure (Hart,
As mentioned earlier, the egg’s mass changed prior to the substance it was soaked in. This experiment was able to show the effects of osmosis where the egg was both depleted and expanded due to the diffusion of the water molecules. The egg’s change in mass depended on whether the solution of the substance was either hypotonic, hypertonic, or isotonic.
Action potentials of several iso-forms of fast voltage-gated sodium channels are blocked, although the resting membrane resistance and potentials are restored at normal levels. According to the study by Chen and Chung (2014), suggested that positively charged guanidine group of the toxin extends and binds complementary to the two acidic residues of the distinctive DEKA ring localised at position 177, although the precise phenomena is not yet fully revealed. These acidic residues are found to significant in stabilising the network of hydrogen bonds. Axonal transmission is restricted by the toxin by inhibiting the sodium conduction at nodes of Ranvier, inhibiting muscle and nerve conductions. Its acts directly or approximately near chemoreceptor trigger zone causing vomiting.
It was found that the atrazine-treated males suffered from gonadal dysgenesis(underdeveloped testes with poorly structured, closed or absent lobules and low to absent germ cells). Some of them displayed sex reversal and testicular oocytes were found in these animals, which turned out to be hermaphrodites (Hayes et al, 2003). The most sensational finding of the current study was that the hermaphroditism observed at metamorphosis can ultimately result in complete feminization (Hayes et al, 2010). This technique has been used before, in previous studies done on zebra fish and leopard frogs. However, this is the first time that such research has been conducted on African clawed frogs, and the result led to a new discovery.
In many cases, infertility is caused by the mucus becoming too thick and impenetrable, or rather it becoming too acidic to be hospitable to sperm. Both are caused by an increase in progesterone, produced by the corpus luteum after ovulation, and can also be caused by an intake of fertility drugs. This is because progesterone prepares the uterus for the accommodation of a embryo, and thus must stop all spermatozoa from penetrating the cervix, which is done by increasing mucus acidity and thickness. Hence, an increase in such a hormone prevents any sperm from entering the uterus and thereby causes
Explain why this increased venous pressure causes net filtration to increase in the hepatic capillaries, leading to ascites (swollen and fluid-filled interstitial space of the abdomen). • In alcoholic cirrhosis, the portal vein becomes scarred and blocked, causing an increase in hydrostatic pressure. Which leads to an increase in hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries. Alcoholic cirrhosis also causes the liver to under produce albumin. This lowers osmotic pressure in the vasculature, enhancing filtration out of the
Labetalol and Carvedilol block beta and alpha-1 receptors. By blocking alpha receptors, this adds to the blood vessel dilating effects. Some of the beta blockers have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), which means they mimic the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine and cause an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. (Ogbru & Marks,