Bureaucratic leadership is based upon fixed official duties under a hierarchy of authority, applying a system of rules for management and decision-making. This style of leadership can be advantageous in highly regulated lines of business, and it can be an efficient management style in companies that don 't require much creativity or innovation from employees. Bureaucratic leadership is one of the most prevalent forms of management today. Weber 's Ideal Bureaucracy is characterized by the following: ~Hierarchical Organization ~Delineated Lines Of Authority With Fixed Areas Of Activity ~Action Taken On The Basis Of, And Recorded In, Written Rules ~Bureaucratic Officials With Expert Training ~Rules Implemented By Neutral Officials ~Career Advancement Depending On Technical Qualifications Judged By Organization, Not Individuals
He elucidates further that the people who control and protect the elite/ruling class hold top positions such as "cabinet ministers, MP's; senior police'; military officers and top judges (Miliband, 1969). However, in answer to Miliband, Poulantzas (1969, 1976) provided his own theory that suggested the power in a 'state' lay with the construction of society rather than an personage basis. He confers that there is a "factor of cohesion of a social formation" therefore suggesting that a 'state' is indispensable in order for the function of a capitalist society. Poulantzas also conversed that, while the 'state' did indeed protect the interests of the elite and ruling classes, the make-up of the 'state' did not necessarily consist of members of the ruling class (Poulantzas, 1976). Marxist theory of the 'state' and capitalism has been supported and both criticised throughout the decades, however, there is clear evidence within today's societies that a 'state' does indeed exist, one need only observe the United Kingdom of present day.
1. Introduction Bureaucracy is the administrative structure and a set of regulations established to control activities, generally in large organizations and government (Dimock, 1959). This concept has a long historical background both in Europe and in Asia. The term "bureaucracy" is generated from "bureau" and has been in use since the early 18th century in Western Europe to refer to an office, i.e., a place of work. The term bureaucracy came into use just before the French Revolution in 1789 and from there onwards rapidly spread throughout the world (Albrow, 1970).
• Elites The sociology of elites was one of the important strands to emerge out of continental theoretical tradition. One among the many theoretical foundations in the field of sociology of elites is laid by Mosca (1939). His theory on elites stratifies societies into two distinguishable groups: the ruling class and the ruled. The ruling class are closely-knit, less in number, hence well-coordinated, “monopolizes power and enjoys the advantages that power brings” while the second class are recipients of ruling class’ influence and control. While the second-class toil to provide the material benefits and ‘instrumentalities’, it is the ruling class who stand at the helm over the production, prioritization and distribution of essential needs in a society.
Only with its aid could economic resources be mobilized, which lay fallow in pre-modern times. A bureaucratic organization is to Weber the privileged instrumentality that has shaped the modern polity, the modern economy, the modern technology. Bureaucratic types of organization are technically superior to all
Productive forces and relations of production are the key concepts of his analysis. Those are relevant each other and related with other social relations. He sees entering into production relations is indispensable and independent of the will (Marx). Production relations specify general process of social, economic and political life. Marx’s ideas can be best explained by:
Capital Another important concept in Bourdieu’s organizational analysis framework is capital. Capital refers to resources, material or immaterial, which can be used as tools to ascend in a person’s relative field. His notion of capital defers from the conventional notion of it only referring to financial resources. His idea of capital includes human, social, informational, cultural, technical, and cultural aspects. He believes capital has a relational nature.
Firstly, the idea of conceptual reductionism or the focus on the micro-foundations of macroeconomic models lending back to the utility maximization decision of individual agents. This expresses strong predilection towards theoretical frameworks that attempt to describe the global economy in terms of an equilibrium asserting consistency in individual behaviors of different economic agents. Secondly, the rational agents assumption that further implies that economic agents have absolute understanding of macroeconomic models and can perfectly comprehend and forecast based on the information that they access, in terms of rational expectations. This assumption is especially supported by and enshrined within larger analytic models such as the Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium models (DSGE-models) that are now commonly used tools for policymaking. (Christiano et al.,
Interdependence with the economic policies In consideration of the aforecited fact, I can add that Micro and Macroeconomic theories are closely relates not only with each other, but also with the economic policy. Economic stability and conformity with the global competitive markets cannot be possible without coordination both of Micro and Macroeconomics. Micro-economics needs the help of Macroeconomics. For example, the sale of a firm not only depends own it price but also the total purchasing power of the commodity. The profit value of a firm depend on aggregate demand, national income and general price level.
This can be related to Marxist theory and how it class relations are based on shared ideas of the class position and struggle that they face therefore in terms of Marxism constructivism theory states that those acting on behalf of their states with reflect inter-subjective which define international social practise. In this case the dominant theory of capitalism defines the actions of common rules, and national interest (Burchill