This gaseous are lighter than the air, colorless and odorless. Usually, this gaseous may use as to heat home or cook the food but this natural gas vehicle gaseous are not dangerous as the gaseous that use at home for cook. Natural gas vehicle is more environmentally then the Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) because it produces less pollution and every natural gas vehicle combustion system does not produced greenhouse gases. According to Callanan (2011) said, as with all vehicle fuels, natural gas can be used safely if the unique properties of the fuel are understood and common sense procedures are followed. In fact, natural gas has safety advantages compared to gasoline and diesel because it is non-toxic, and has no potential for ground or water contamination in the event of a fuel release.
Butanol has a lower vapor pressure, which reduces the chance of vapor lock Butanol is safer to handle with a Reid Value of 0.33 psi, which is a measure of a fluid's rate of evaporation when compared to gasoline at 4.5 and ethanol at 2.0 psi. Butanol is an alcohol that can be but does not have to be blended with fossil fuels. Butanol because of improved combustion efficiency when consumed in an internal combustion engine yields no SOX, NOX or carbon monoxide all environmentally harmful byproducts of combustion. CO2 is the combustion byproduct of butanol, and is considered environmentally 'green'. Butanol is far less corrosive than ethanol and can be shipped and distributed through existing pipelines and filling stations.
Another chemical, Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), having no chlorine atoms which does not bring harm to the ozone layer is considered the best alternative since they are not flammable, such as CF3CH2F,1,1,12 tetrafluoroethane. As CFCs are replaced by HFCs, the remaining CFCS will reduce as the ozone recovers
Oxygen and fuel combustion produces approximately 75% less flue gas than air fuel combustion and produces exhaust consisting primarily of CO2 and H2O. The justification for using oxy-fuel is to produce a CO2 rich flue gas ready for "The process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir." This has significant advantages over traditional air-fuel combustion. The mass and volume of the flue gas is reduced, less heat is lost in the flue gas. The size of the flue gas treatment equipment can be reduced.
Some boards are able to contain fire resistant properties and others are denser making them stronger. The type of board I will be using has a density of 100 kg/m but will retain the same thermal conductivity but using a different grade of polyurethane foam that has fire resistant properties. This type of insulation has a relatively high compressive and tensile strength but during its production it does give off quite large amounts of Co2 and does contain toxic materials that could prove to be harmful to the surrounding environment. Although more costly the insulation having a higher strength and fire resistance will ensure that less maintenance will have to occur and so could be less expensive long
Biodiesel is much safer than diesel from petroleum when biodiesel is escaped to the surrounding environment; moreover, it is much less inflammable as biodiesel’s flashpoint is 130°C as compared to petroleum diesel which is only 52°C. As a result, biodiesel is low-risk to be stored, kept, and delivered (U.S Department of Energy). Trans-esterification reaction can be illustrated as following: Triglyceride + Alcohol → Methyl esters (biodiesel) + Glycerol (Vegetable oil) (Methanol) FIGURE 1.1 Typical trans-esterification reaction is carried out to produce Biodiesel (AOCS Lipid Library) Furthermore, biodiesel can be produced from the tobacco seed and soya bean which tobacco seed oil reduces the
Oxygenated compounds Oxygenated fuel is a compound that has a chemical compound containing oxygen. It helps to burn fuel more efficiently so reduces some type of atmospheric pollution. It reduces carbon mono oxide emission and smog formation. Oxygenated fuel allows fuel in vehicles to burn more efficiently because more of fuel is burning so there are fewer chemical pollutants released. Oxygenated fuel also help to cut down renewable fossil fuel consumption.
In comparison with other conventional technologies, membrane distillation benefits from low operational temperature and pressure and therefore low energy requirements. In this process a lower energy is required due to working temperatures below the feed normal boiling point, so waste heats or other alternative energies including geothermal and solar energy are also applicable[7–10]. In addition, since there is no need to apply pressure difference between two sides of the membrane, membrane fouling as one of the most serious problems in pressure-driven membrane processes is less significant. The membranes in MD process are required to have hydrophobic properties i.e. low surface energies.
Con Decon Process : It is a dilute chemical decontamination process that avoids the draining or flushing of the system to be decontaminated. It is also not necessary to defuel the reactor due to decontamination process. This is thus a simplified process which results in cleaning of the fuel at the same time, adding a huge advantage of removing a significant amount of activated corrosion product which if allowed to remain would eventually dissolve and redeposit out-core, thus partially negating the effects of the decontamination. Figure 1- Con Decon Process 4 The following equations show some of the chemical reactions involved in magnetite dissolution. The study was carried out by making an oxide covered disk the working electrode in an