Rediet Legese iLab Week # 6 CRUDE OIL DISTILLATION Introduction: The aim of this week lab experiment is to experiment distill crude oil and to check how temperature determine the chemical properties of crude oil plus how the boiling point can also show physical properties. They are two major finding in this experiment. he first finding was the point at which the raw petroleum is heated to the point of boiling, at 275 0C, the gas and kerosene oil are refined, however the oil (lubricant ) stays as an unrefined feature oil. Another finding was that the oil at the gasoline stage was brown pinkish and for kerosene it became a grey. Procedure: Step 1: Set up the distillation apparatus.
In order to do this the scientists will measure the volume of gas that is produced within a 10 second interval time after the tablet begins to react. Then the scientist will observe the different rates of reaction with temperature. The Boltzmann distribution of law, indicates that high temperature makes molecules gain high energy contents (pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja). In order to measure the reaction rate, the scientists must use the same volume of water at three different starting temperatures: hot tap
This procedure occurred in the presence a Bunsen burner. The inoculation needle were placed within the open flame 15-20 second in order to sterilize the needle and prevent contamination. The needle was allowed to cool 5-10 second before inoculation. Using aseptic transfer technique the needle was used to gather up some of the colonies on the plate, making sure not to touch anything else with the needle. The test tube was uncapped and the lips of the test tube was passed through the open flame three times.
Then add nitrobenzene to it in installments of about 1 mL from the top of the condenser and shake the flask for mixing the reaction products. Due to exothermic nature of reaction the mixture becomes hot and acquires a deep brown colour.After the addition of all the nitrobenzene ,place the flask in a water bath and heat for about 15 minutes. At this stage a few drops of reaction mixture is cooled and poured in cold water and if the hard pale yellow solid separates then the heating is discontinued. The reaction mixture is cooled and the contents poured with vigorous stirring for about 300 mL water containing a few pieces of ice when m-Dinitrobenzene separates as a hard yellow solid. Filter it on a Buchner funnel with suction ,wash with water and dry by pressing between filter papers.
In the first trial, measure 1.00M of hydrochloric acid into the graduated cylinder. Then enter your first whole 3cm piece of the magnesium strip into the cylinder. As soon as it starts reacting start the stopwatch. You will know it has started because it will start to bubble. When the bubbling comes to an end, stop the stopwatch, and annotate your results.
Preparation of Polyaniline Solution. To obtain polyaniline solution, prepare 0.12M aniline solution by adding 2 ml of aniline into 200 ml of 1 M sulfuric acid. Start with 98% purity sulfuric acid, 10.8784 ml of 98% sulfuric acid is added to 200 ml distilled water to obtain 1 M sulfuric acid. 0.12 M aniline solution can be created by adding 2 ml of aniline and 200 ml of 1 M sulfuric acid. Refrigerated the solution for a night to let the polyaniline solution form nanotube structure.
A 60°C water bath was chosen as Sodium Hydrosulphite will decompose into Sodium Sulfate and Sulfur Dioxide in presence of air at 90°C. After soaking a piece of cotton for an hour, it was taken out to be oxidised through exposure to air. Oxidation converts Leucoindigo back into Indigo, and a colour change from yellow to green to purple was observed. This is because Leucoindigo absorbs light poorly in the yellow(570nm) wavelength, while Indigo absorbs light in the blue(475nm) wavelength. The visual change in colours can be seen due to the changes in amount of each form as oxidation
2 Preparation of benzhydrol from benzophenone (Reduction) Introduction: Reduction of benzophenone to benzhydrol carried out by using mild reducing agent sodium borohydride NaBH4 followed by acid hydrolysis. Reaction: Procedure: 1. Place 0.64 g of benzophenone and 4 mL of methanol in a 100 mL conical flask. 2. If necessary, warm the mixture to dissolve the benzophenone and then allow to cool at room temperature.
Fractional distillation is a separation technique used to separate two liquids with different boiling points and keep the liquid. To do this, we set it up just like the distillation lab with the 10-15mL in the test tube over the fire and the tube leading the the test tube in the beaker. The first time you go through, the same test tube is left in the whole time but you must record the temperature around every 10-15 seconds using your labquest. You then find two places where the temperature is consistent for a few seconds, this is your plateau. The second time you go through, change out the test tubes as soon as you get to your first plateau, this liquid is liquid one.
Chromic acid is added continuously until a slight brownish colour solution persists, this is to make sure that complete oxidation of borneol in the experiment. Light petroleum was used to dissolve and extract the product from the aqueous layer twice, 15 mL each. Sodium carbonate and saturated solution were used to wash product and separate both aqueous and organic layer in the separating funnel. This is to increase the accuracy when flowing out the aqueous layer. The extracted organic layer was steam bathed to vaporize light petroleum which has low boiling point at 30-40˚C.
32 100 μL of afore-prepared sample solution and the mixed reference standard were diluted 100 times with ethyl acetate. 50 μL of these dilution solutions were separated on the TLC plate coated with SNISG. The plate was developed with petroleum ether: ethyl acetate (4:1) and the movement of solvent was usually controlled at 1 cm from the upper edge. After completion, the plate was dried until no solvent smell remained. It was sprayed with an ethanol solution containing 10% sulfuric acid, and heated at an infra-red drier until obvious color came up, as shown in Fig.2 (B.ab).