Hourly rounding and patient falls was a study that was conducted to see if hourly rounding was an effective fall prevention strategy. The study involved 2 units. The first unit leadership and staff were involved from the very beginning and the 2nd unit received training just prior to the program being initiated. Rounds were completed every 1 hour between 0600-2200 and very two hours between 2200-0600. Falls on unit one reduced significantly.
Rationalists also help to make sense of the data and to make predictions about what new observations and experiments might show. And through experiments, it will show how successful a prediction is. Therefore theory feeds back on experiment, which in turn tells us how well our theories are doing. With this way of looking at things, one can conclude that both, rationalists and empiricists have qualities that are needed by scientists. Not forgetting about skeptics, they also have qualities that scientists need to adapt since they are the one who test the credibility of a data by questioning or scrutinizing it if there's no evidence to support it as explained earlier in the second
The direct realism believe that our sense which captures the world is reliable. The information collected from our sensations is sufficient for an accurate research result. Meanwhile, critical realism believe the world to be in a multi-level. Standing in a different level to conduct a research can even generate a contrasting understanding of the underlying research phenomena. In critical realism, our sensation could deceive us so that being in another level of structures, procedures and process is able to fundamentally change the research result.
Positivists view the world from a scientific point of view was seen as the way to get at truth through prediction and controlling it. The world was thought to operate by laws of cause and affect that we could discern if researchers used unique approach. They emphasised the use deductive reasoning to postulate theories that can be tested.
Scientifics use the quasi experimentation to look for cause and effect, when a controlled experiment is impossible because of ethics, money or time are not available. Just like any other experiment they have the independent and dependent and independent variable, however since is not a true experiment Scientifics often use the term predictor variable referring to the independent variable and criterion variable to refer to the dependent variable (Carlo et al., 1998, 278). In addition to the alternate term for variables, since in most quasi experiments there are not experimental or controlled groups, Scientifics use the terms exposure group to represent the experimental group, and comparison group to represent the control group (Rossi & Freeman, 1989,
Aging and Memory Klencklen, G., Banta Lavenex, P., Brandner, C., & Lavenex, P. (2017). Working memory decline in normal aging: Memory load and representational demands affect performance. Learning and Motivation, 60(May), 10–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lmot.2017.09.002 In the article cited above, the researchers analyzed the changes resulted from age and their effect on the performance of each groups’ working memory. Specifically, this study was conducted through the use of laboratory memory tests that were realistic to those the participants would face in the real world.
In particular they are inclined to see their interest as clashing, incompatible. This supports the idea of the ‘Fixed-Pie Belief’. The negotiations results will depend on whether parties have or do not have similar interests and whether or not the issues are or are not compatible with each other. Another implication which was found as a result from the experiments shows that biased conflict perceptions are quite strongly swayed by interests which relate to oneself. It was proven also that issues can be misconstrued to be ones of too great importance and one may then overestimate the amount of conflict.
According to Stenbacka, (2001) was stated that the concept of reliability is even misleading in qualitative research. If a qualitative study is discussed with reliability as a criterion, the impact is rather that the study is no good. In addition, validity and reliability are two factors which any qualitative researcher should be concerned about while designing a study, analyzing results and judging the quality of the study (Patton, 2001). Next, in order to ensure reliability in qualitative research, examination of trustworthiness is important. According to Seale, (1999) was stated that the trustworthiness of a research report lies at the heart of issues conventionally discussed as validity and reliability.
Attribution Theory Heider (1958) initially proposed a psychological theory of attribution, but Harold Kelley (1967, 1971) and Bernard Weiner (1985, 1986) established a theoretical structure that has become a foremost research model of social psychology. Attribution theorists interpret humans as scientists trying to understand the world around them and using simple statistical techniques to reach different conclusions. The attribution theory has been most thoroughly examined in the achievement domain. It is stated that in order to determine the causes of success and failure, casual search is undertaken. This search is usually instigated when unexpected and significant events culminate in failure.
In quantitative research, variables are identified and defined, and then relevant data is collected from study participants. A strength of this type of research is that the data is in numeric form, making it easier to interpret. It also studies the relationship between independent and dependent variables and can address questions such as does a relationship between variables exist, what is the direction of the relationship, how strong is the relationship between the variables, and what is the nature of the relationship. To be able to discover and answer the cause-and-effect relationship is a strength of quantitative research. Lastly, in quantitative research, the study can either be experimental or nonexperimental, meaning clinical trial or observational study, allowing for different types of research studies to be conducted.