C. M.'s Pneumonia Case Study

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C.M. is an 85 year old patient. He is presenting to the hospital with shortness of breath and increased respiratory effect. He also was found to have rhonchi in the lungs and was using accessory muscles to breathe. He was then diagnosed with pneumonia. C.M. is a former smoker who would smoke half a pack a day. He has a history of COPD, chronic bronchitis, HTN, and CHF to name a few. Having COPD, chronic bronchitis, and CHF are risk factors for pneumonia. He is also an older gentlemen who’s immune system is weakened due to age. C.M. has a community acquired pneumonia. Most likely the bacteria causing the pneumonia is S. pneumoniae. This bacteria lives in the upper respiratory tract without any problems, but when introduced to the…show more content…
Neutrophils will go to the alveoli, where the foreign bacteria is located, and will destroy it. They destroy the bacteria by engulfing it by phagocytosis . As a result an exudate, pus substance, is left and it fills the alveoli. This damages the alveoli’s ability to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen. The diffusion of the gases cannot take place because the carbon dioxide cannot get into the alveoli from the capillary. The alveoli is filled with fluid. The lungs are not able to expand fully to get enough air in due to the inflammation and exudate. Therefore, when the carbon rich blood comes to the lungs to be oxygenated, there isn’t enough oxygen to fully oxygenate the blood. If this continues overtime, the rest of the body will become hypoxic because of the low oxygen levels. Since C.M. has COPD, he might not have recognized his symptoms right away. An example would be coughing with sputum production. Chills, fever, chest pain, tachypnea, and shortness of breath are all signs of pneumonia. A late sign would be the nail beds and lips may becoming cyanotic due to lack of oxygen. If left untreated, septic shock could occur from the infection. The bacteria would colonize and multiply causing more problems throughout the body. Respiratory failure could also occur. The lungs could become restricted minimizing ventilation thus no gas

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