Self-concepts are an individual 's perception of their own actions, potential, and distinctive characteristics. These self-concepts give the individual an essential motive for behavior. Furthermore, the theory states that people and groups are influenced by cultural and social processes. Therefore, social structure is worked out through social interaction. This paper aims to analyze symbolic interaction theory, discuss its history, criticisms, as well as emphasizing the current social condition of gender inequality which relates to it.
1.1 Introduction In this essay I will be discussing the sociological imagination and the problems of families. The sociological imagination allows us to see the difference between personal problems and public issues and be able to link them. It basically allows a person to think outside of their personal perspectives and see beyond the outer appearance. 1.2 The Sociological Imagination Sociological imagination is a "quality of mind" that allows one to grasp "history and biography and the relations between the two within society.” (Elwell). Sociological imagination is understanding your situation while taking into consideration the broader society.
Meaning of sociological imagination The sociologist, C Wright Mills said that the sociological imagination is a perspective on the world that helps us to see the links between society and the individual’s experiences and circumstances. The sociological imagination explains that external influences significally influence the individual’s motivations, way of thinking and social status in society. The sociological imagination attempts to understand human behaviour by placing it within a broader social context, as well as, observing the connections between what appears to be the personal problems of the individual compared to the larger social issues. Personal problem and social issue A personal problem is society is the hardships that negatively affect one individual’s life, for example alcohol
1. The two sociological perspectives that I will be writing about are conflict theory and symbolic interactionism. There are two conflict theories of a social problem Marxist Conflict theory and Non-Marxist Conflict theory. The importance of using social perspective when studying the Marxist and Non-Marxist conflict theories allows individuals a better understanding of the conflicts we face in average life such as class inequality, alienation, and conflicts in competing values in social groups. As for symbolic interactionism, a social problem is created through social interaction from definitions and labels individuals place on particular things.
As Ghoshal, 2005 says When in totalled from overall perspective, meaning in essence Social Scientists carry greater social and moral responsibility than natural or physical sciences scientists as social sciences deal predominantly with Humans and behaviours. Social Scientists and Theorists can't hide any ideology or Theory as one belong to a different school of thought, hence One can look at the below other important theoretical basis for this article. As per Parsons, Merton, Germain, Gitterman, SYSTEMS THEORY is one which includes ecological systems which How humans interact with their social setting and environment, Humans are in continual transaction with their social setting or social environment, can they shy away from the setting?, Systems are interrelated parts constituting an ordered whole system where in each subsystem impacts all other parts and the whole system. Systems can have closed or open boundaries but finally systems tend towards equilibrium thus maintaining social balance. Quoting Bowen, Satir, Minuchin, Carter and McGoldrick, Family Systems can be defined as the one which focuses on How the family system affects the individual and family functioning across the life-span of any Individual functioning shapes family functioning and family systems can create 'pathology' within the individual boundaries, roles, communication, family structure influence family functioning.
Self-efficacy is based in a great theoretical framework known as Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), in which there are bidirectional communications between the cognitive, behavioral and environmental or situational contexts (Wood & Bandura, 1989). Self-efficacy beliefs are not a stable attribute of an individual, but they are an active and learned system of beliefs held in context. The thought of self-efficacy is interested with judgments of one’s ability to produce a given pattern of behavior (Schunk, 1981). Social cognitive hypothesis is developed from the view of human agency. In this view, individuals are measured as factors who are contained in their own progression and, by means of their actions, they are able to make things happens.
Although sexual abuse amongst the youth is a worldwide phenomenon, according to SABC news (SABC News 2015), South Africa has been coined the rape capital of the world with only one percent of cases actually ever being reported to the police. A female child born in South Africa is more likely to be sexually abused in her lifetime than educated. This social issue can be linked to many greater societal structures namely culture and socialisation occurring across socio-economic backgrounds. Among reported cases one in six presents a female victim under the age of twelve however the percentage of sexually abused boys is climbing. Females are highly vulnerable due to culture that indoctrinates male dominance.
Sociological theories are paradigms used to examine and analyze social phenomena. Theories are vital to making sense of social life because they connect assorted observations and facts together. In fact, Sociological theories are working in the background of everyday life as researchers seek to understand the world around us and understand society. Sociological theories guide researchers as they conduct their research with a specific framework and procedure which designs research
A Self Serving Bias is any cognitive or perceptual process that is distorted by the need to maintain and enhance self esteem. According to Judge & Robbins, perception is defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. This is an individual, subjective process and it is influenced by numerous factors including attitude, personal values and expectation and it is impossible to avoid bias. These can be factors in the perceiver, situation or the target. Attribution theory also plays a role in how we perceive the world around us.
In 2016, the poverty rate was increased to 12.7 percent of the U.S. As the statistic shows poverty in the U.S is only growing and isn't being seen or talked about. Primarily because it increases crime. Before I describe the impacts of poverty in the U.S I want to share the origins of poverty. The first sentence of american-historama.org says, during the Great Depression massive numbers of Americans lived in poverty. The people who lived in poverty had been denied an income sufficient
The only reason I was able to reduce my spending in gas was because of the price of gas going down. I spent exactly twenty dollars on gas, which lasted me for a week based on my daily routine. Since the price of gas has gone down I’ve been saving four to six dollars a week. Currently I live with my parents so I don’t worry about buying groceries, but I spend a lot on junk food and sodas. Since tracking our spending I’ve given myself a budget of forty dollars a month for groceries.
Next, Eisenhower cites the poor condition of the current highways. He claims that the highway conditions increase the cost of using a vehicle by one cent per mile. Considering that in 2015, on average, most Americans drive 12,000 miles per year , saving an extra penny for each of those miles every year would make a significant impact. Eisenhower stated that poor highway conditions cost the United States 5 billion dollars per year, and that those costs were suffered not just by the individual driver, but by the entire nation, through transportation costs in the distribution of goods. Eisenhower states,
Does one even have enough to pay standard bills? The cost doesn’t stop there, so were those thousands of dollars spent really worth it? That’s what most ask themselves at night when they can’t sleep because they’re figuring out how to pay their light bill. The ground on wages fluctuates by year, “hourly wages for young college-educated men in 2000 were $22.75, but that dropped by almost a full dollar to $21.77 by 2010. For young college-educated women, hourly wages fell from $19.38 to $18.43 over the same period” (“New College Grads Losing Ground on Wages.”).