CALL Literature Review

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Literature Review Today in every facet of society, there is a trace of technology. Focus on technology and its incorporation into instructional and academic curricula has been one of debatable issues. This study aimed to investigate the Iranian EFL learners view point of technology in the form of CALL on their learning process. The review of literature of present study was provided to present understanding of the role of attitude in language learning, the history of English language instructional technology, high quality staff development and teachers’ perspective, and technology and students' viewpoint. These concepts build a foundation of knowledge regarding technology and its impact on the learning community in EFL classroom.
Attitudes
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First generation of personal computers in 1980s paved the way for integration of computers into education, in particular EFL curricula. As the use of computer seemed to be effective, many researchers in different field initiated to study exploitation of this modern technology in its maximum effectiveness. Since then, many researchers have explored and investigated productivity of computer technology in the form of computer assisted instruction (CAI), computer mediated communication (CMC), and most recently, computer assisted language learning (CALL). Warschauer & Healey (1998) divided history of CALL within 30 years of research into three main categories: behavioristic CALL, communicative CALL, and integrative CALL. They refer to behavioristic CALL as a subcategory of computer assisted instruction in which repetitive language drills were used in the form of behavioristic model of CALL. In other words, computer was used as a mechanical tutor that enabled learners to practice individually. According to Warschauer & Healey, communicative CALL developed in 1970s and 1980s while the behavioristic CALL rejected. In communicative CALL, emphasis was on using forms of language rather than forms alone. Furthermore, learners were encouraged to use language communicatively and discover meaning and pattern of language individually or in groups. Some…show more content…
The results showed that there is a discrepancy between the students’ awareness of the instructors’ goals for using new technologies and the importance instructors placed on computer assisted language learning (CALL). The data also indicated a disparity between the students’ use of CALL and instructors’ perceptions of how students use CALL and also the types of technologies that instructors thought were useful for students’ success and ones that students perceived were useful for their own

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