The first was that of acting on behalf of the patient which implies the nurse represent patients who are unable to or those that feel they are unable to represent themselves. The second attribute is protecting patients which entails actions that promote the respect of the patients. Lastly, intervene in the provision of healthcare. This attribute regards nurses addressing inequalities in healthcare and services. These attributes parallel the attributes identified by Baldwin (2003) in a concept analysis discussing patient advocacy.
“Tuberculosis was another big killer in the 1800s (Humphries/ Bystrianyk 15). By the late 1930’s the death rate had dropped by 92% (Humphries/ Bystrianyk 15). By 1970, the decline had reached over 99% (Humphries/ Bystrianyk 15). During the 1900’s this disease was killing 5 to 16 times more people than typhoid, scarlet fever, whooping cough, measles, or diphtheria (Humphries/ Bystrianyk 15).” Despite the substantial amount of deaths from Tuberculosis many good treatments to not only treat tuberculosis but to help cure many other infections and bacterias appeared. For instance, Rifampin, an antibiotic used to treat Tuberculosis, Neisseria meningitidis- also known as Meningitis- or infections in the nose and throat.
Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare Introduction Evidence-based health care refers to the careful and thoughtful decision-making that happens during patient care, which is greatly influenced by valid and clinically relevant research, to provide quality patient care and improve patient outcomes (Broom and Adams, 2012). As such, the main aim of the evidence-based health care is to help healthcare providers make choices that best affect individual patients, of which they have to base their judgment on current and valid information. Evidence-based practice is a process that necessitates practitioners to examine the patient, come up with a clinical query, carry out a research pertaining the question, and attain supportive evidence.
Despite improvements, racial minorities and people that suffer disabilities often face more health care disparities that lead to health inequalities including forced sterilization and an increase in cervical cancer. For instance, the American Indian/Alaska Native population is a prominent minority community that faces health disparities. In the United States, there is currently 567 federally recognized American Indian/Alaska Native tribes and 2.9 million individuals identify themselves as American Indian/Alaska Native natives alone (Dugi, 2017). These individuals continue to die faster than other Americans in many categories that can be attributed with the health disparities this population endures (Dugi, 2017). American Indians/ Alaska Natives
This can be explained by, “Studies of pregnant women in New York City welfare hotels have shown their babies are twice as likely to weigh less than five pounds at birth when compared to all pregnant women. Low birthweight babies are at greater risk of blindness, deafness, brain damage, and even death”(Hyde 56). Taking this into consideration, homeless children’s academic performance is hindered because of their poor cognitive development and the circumstances of their homelessness, including constant mobility. Math, reading, spelling, and vocabulary tests are the tests that homeless children most often struggle to succeed on and likely result in being held back a year in school(Hart-Shegos 3). This can be seen in Dicey’s Song through Maybeth’s character and the difficulty she has to prosper in school.
“The cost to the family and the larger society can be used as one measure of the effectiveness of current and future treatments” (Perkins et al.). It is said that the estimate of the annual cost of a pediatric stroke hospitalization in the United States is about $42 million, however, this amount decreases in comparison with adult stroke. Either way you see it pediatric stroke is still very expensive, because from those children that survive stroke maybe about 50% to 80% will have permanent neurological damage such as hemiparesis
The prevalence of HF is expected to increase by 25 percent in the next two decades, exacerbating the extent of these issues (Benjamin et al., 2018). Repeat and frequent emergency room visits and hospital readmissions for symptom relief contribute to HF being the most costly cardiovascular illness in the United States and cause an immense burden on the individual, the family and the health care system. Common reasons for HF hospitalizations and readmissions include delays in symptom recognition, lack of knowledge and skills for competent self care and as a result, poor adherence to their treatment regimen involving the restriction of fluid and sodium intake, daily weight monitoring, regular physical activity and the regular use of medications (Dennison, 2011; CDC, 2016). The American Heart Association (AHA) identified low health literacy as a challenge to effective self-care for patients with HF. According to the AHA, about half of those afflicted will die within five years of the diagnosis (Benjamin et al., 2018).
Communication is an important factor in determining patient outcomes, patient experiences, and healthcare costs, both positively and negatively. In fact, communication breakdown accounts for two thirds of sentinel events, the most serious of errors reported to the Joint Commission, making it the leading cause of medical errors (Starmer et al., 2014). The Institute of Medicine (1999) conservatively estimates that between 44,000 and 98,000 patients die each year from medical errors. More recent estimates predicted this number to be upwards of 400,000 deaths annually, making medical errors the third leading cause of death in the United States (Makary & Daniel, 2016). Miscommunication and handoff errors are the primary point these errors occur.
Taking a medication or medications everyday of one’s life is not always an easy task. According to Benjamin (2012), “Seventy-five percent of Americans have trouble taking their medicine as directed” (p.2). Lack of adherence can cause a person their health as well as the health care system billions of dollars. An approximation of 125,000 deaths a year in the United States (U.S.) is due to medication non adherence (p.2). Benjamin (2012) stated, “nearly half of all the Americans-133million-people suffer from at least one ongoing or chronic health condition” (p.2) Therefore, it is important to help and prevent non adherence with medication for patients.