Intuitively, the researchers claimed that collectivistic cultures tend to give higher ratings per se although they mean only a medium level). This will inevitably lead to a distortion of the results. Thirdly, the researchers made use of Hofstede’s national culture model to classify a country’s level of individualism and collectivism. Hofstede’s study was based on a study of one company (IBM). He surveyed the subsidiaries of the company across countries and generalized their behaviours as representative of the entire country.
Furthermore, Hofstede’s scale does not account for the blending and evolving of cultures mentioned earlier in this essay. These, among other problems of quantitative data etc. have led to the creation of a fifth dimension - the long-term versus short-term orientation. This refers to „the degree to which people and organizations defer gratification to achieve long-term success“ (Tiernan 2012). If you take a look on table one you can see that the US is just a bit higher long-term orientated than the average of the Arabic world, but both have a relatively low score compared to a country such a China.
The main factor is the value the countries score in the mentioned dimensions. The countries which lie closest to each other are in these dimension and have similar leadership styles are combined in the same region below. The clustering of the countries has as a result that the theory is less accurate and is difficult to be used as a definitive form of measuring. The countries which are in the same region still have minor differences in their leadership styles leads to a reduced degree of utilization when used for comparing specific countries. The importance of small differences is less of importance when less equal countries are compared, such as China and the Netherlands.
With the lead in attraction of the low price, the author is able to claim the statement of MagnaSoles being better than “expensive effective forms of traditional medicine” immediately after. This following phrase makes the consumers focus on the word “expensive,” and convinces them to think that quality -- traditional medicine -- is inferior than the cheap quantity of MagnaSoles. By juxtaposing cheap against expensive prices, The Onion demonstrates to the consumers of how corporations take advantage of their single factored
Job loyalty: Culture has always played an important part of influencing job loyalty across employees in the organizations. Peter Blau has stated in 1962 that cultural effects may operate at the individual -level through values, beliefs and norms employees accept and internalize but also at the group level through the mechanism of social pressure aimed at inducing conformity. A study was conducted by James Lincoln and Bernadette Doerr in 2012 found that The Japanese employees are more loyal and are less likely to quite in the presence of organization cultures favoring paternalism/familyism, groupism and vertical cohesion. The reverse is in general true of the American employees. Hofstede in his study has also found that people in Japan are less likely to quite as the Japanese culture is more collectivist compared to US culture, US scored 91 on the individualism dimension compared to 46 in Japan.
In conclusion, collaborative leadership is more effective than authoritative leadership because power and fear create anarchy and dissent, while respect and decency create a harmonious society. Hobbes, Macbeth, and Plato all prove how authoritative leadership is less effective and less productive than collaborative leadership. When ruling a kingdom the best form of leadership is collaborative because it produces a more productive society. Helen Keller was spot on when she said, “Alone we can do so little; together we can do so much.” If only Macbeth knew what Helen Keller knew about leadership, maybe then things would have gone better
Masculinity versus femininity This dimension doesn’t correlate directly with gender roles or behaviours. Instead this is more orientated towards specific traits that Hofstede has defined as masculine and low masculine (femininity). A high masculine culture is characterized by focusing on money, possessions, and traditional family values. Feminine cultures are said to be relationship oriented, focused on quality of life, and failing is generally more accepted. This is best describe by the commonly used phrase “Americans live to work, while Europeans work to live.
“Germanic European countries think that effective leadership is based on participation, charisma and autonomy but not on face saving and other self-centered attributes” (Northouse, 2012, p. 402). Americans’ also value charisma, participation and less self-centered attributes (Northouse, 2012). Unfortunately, working together may highlight the differences between American and German cultures. Studies done by Andre Laurent, show that managers imbedded in multicultural companies actually tend to display their culture preferences and identities more highly than managers working without their own company (cited via Adler,
They also contended for special and differential treatment, both through the Generalized Systems of Preferences (GSP) and through the automaticity with which the balance of payment exclusion was used to authorize them to continue relying upon quantifiable boundaries and other protectionist measures. Not all developing countries nor manufactured goods are protected by the numerous preferences provisions. The Most Favored Nations (MFN) provides cuts that would shelter a wider variety of products and certainly would benefit some developing countries currently excluded from the GSP. The MFN tariff reductions also offer more advantageous access to world markets for unrestricted trade volumes (Baldwin & Murray,
Compare and contrast comparative advantage with absolute advantage. Explain the reasons why comparative advantage is preferred to absolute advantage. What is the comparative advantage of your country of origin? Absolute advantage remarks the difference in productivity of nations, and Comparative advantage refers to differences in opportunity cost. Based on their definitions Absolute advantage which compares the productivity of different producers or economies, in this case the correct definition given to Absolute advantage is that a producer needs smaller amount of inputs in order to produce the good as needed.