Plant Material and Extraction Leaves of C. alata will be collected from Rizal High School. Water, methanol, n-hexane and acetone will be used for the extraction. Fifty grams of the sample will be weighed and boiled in 150 cm of each solvent for 5 minutes(Tendencia,2004). The content will be soaked for 48 hours. The extract will then be poured out and cooled down for 24 hours to intensify the liquid distilled essence.
All chemicals used in this study were of analytical grade from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA), BDH (Dorset, England) or Fluka Chemie Co. (Buchs, Switzerland). 2.1. Plant samples and extraction. Fresh samples of C. longa and O. marjorana were collected from a local market in Cairo, Egypt then dried at 50ºC and reduced to fine particles using Waring laboratory blender (MX-7011G) for 5 min at high speed and then stored in airtight closed bottles for two days before being used for analysis. For aqueous extracts, 300 g dried ground plant material was soaked in 1L distilled water then heated in water bath at 40ºC for 2 hrs and for organic extract, 300 gm plant material was percolated with 1L ethanol and 1 L aceton in glass bottles, those bottles were vigorously shaken at a speed of 300 rpm, overnight.
In 10 g dried sediment sample added 7 ml 0.2 M NH4Cl solution. A mixture of 100 ml hexane: acetone (1:1) was used as a solvent to extract pesticides with overnight shaking for 12 h on reciprocal or wrist action shaker at 180 rpm. The extract was carefully decanted through activated florisil column (2-3 cm), giving twice wash with25 ml hexane: acetone (1:1) to the sediments. The elute was then washed with 200 ml water and then again aqueous layer was extracted with 50 ml hexane. Finally the hexane layer was washed with 100 ml water and then evaporated to dryness with a vacuum rotary evaporator.
An equivalent volume of saline solution was added (NaCl 0.16 M; pH = 7) and it was mixed completely. The resultant solution was centrifugated for 30 minutes at 9000 rpm at 4ºC in a rotor Beckman JA-20, eliminating the pellet. The supernatant was collected to obtain the lipoproteins by gradient density ultracentrifugation: 10ml of the yolk solution were taken and then 0.9 g of potassium bromide (KBr) was added. The bromide was dissolved with a smooth agitation, with care not to denature the proteins. Straight afterwards, saline solution was added (NaCl 0.16 M, pH=7) to the 10ml of the yolk solution with a Pasteur pipette, avoiding the sample diffusion, forming two phases and filling the tube completely.
The alkaline solution was extracted 3 times with 10mL of chloroform. The lower chloroform extract was combined and the upper aqueous layer for quaternary bases was reserved. The chloroform extract was evaporated to dryness in a fume hood over a steam bath. 5mL of 2M HCl was added and the solution was filtered and divided into 3 portions. 1 portion was tested with Mayer’s reagent, Wagner’s reagent and Draggendorrf’s reagent.
Therefore, in the second step (2), the sodium salicylate collected is then acidified using sulphuric acid to convert the organic salt into the protonated carboxylic acid, salicylic acid. Since the acid is a solid, it be easily isolated from the alcohol produced, methanol, and then purified by crystallisation. The mechanism of
The sodium salt of p-nitrophenol is treated with concentrated sulphuric acid at 35-45°C. p-Nitrophenol is filtered. With proper filtration and water wash, alkaline liquor trapped into sodium salt of p-nitrophenol is minimized and consumption of sulphuric acid for neutralization is reduced. The dissolved salts content in the acidic effluent is decreased. p-Nitrophenol is reduced with iron at 90-100°C temperature in wooden vat.
3.2.1 Ferric Chloride Test The sample extraction will be dissolved in 2 ml ethanol. A few drops of 10% ferric chloride solution will be added in test tube F. A green-blue coloration indicates the presence of a phenolic hydroxyl group (Bhatt et. al., 2011) 3.2.2 Sodium Hydroxide Test Few drops of 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution will be added in a test tube E with 2-3 ml of the extract. Formation of intense yellow color that became colorless on the addition of few drops of diluted HCl indicates the presence of flavonoids (Bello et. al.,
The organic phase was absorbed on silica gel and purified by column chromatography petroleum ether (60-80 ºC) / ethyl acetate (9/1). All the products were identified by comparison of their 1H NMR and IR data with those of authentic samples. The spectral data of representative β-acetamido ketones are given
Carica papaya extraction biochemically produced several proteins and alkaloids which is significant in pharmaceutical and industrial applications ( Alabi et la., 2012). Due to that, the properties that contained in carica papaya can helps against certain